268 pages, 64 colour & 65 b/w illustrations, 17 tables
For the last three centuries forests have been recognised as providing the best water catchments and valued for their sustained output of high quality water. In Australia, work which was commenced fifty years ago has come to fruition and is providing new information on forest hydrology issues. Forest Hydrology and Catchment Management focusses on the issues of small streams, including catchment definition, slope, hydrograph formation, water quality measurement, and annual water yield. The world-wide management issues of sustaining riparian forests are examined, using the River Murray forests as an example.
Finally a large amount of information is drawn together to examine the management of forested catchments for water supplies. Forest Hydrology and Catchment Management presents an incisive, disciplined, quantitative approach to dealing with forest hydrology matters. Although world-wide in application, the book particularly draws on Australian studies. It is written with the needs of students and forest practitioners in mind.
List of Symbols
1. The Basics of Catchment Hydrology
1.1. About Water Catchments and Stream Networks
1.2. Topographic Analysis and Catchment Boundaries
1.2.1. Catchment Flow Vectors and Streamlines
1.2.2. Defining Catchment Boundaries for a Specific Stream Cross-Section
1.3. Stream Networks
1.4. Hydrologic Units and Catchment Arithmetic
1.5. Introduction to Hydrographs and Averaging of Units
1.5.1. Runoff Expressed in Depth Units
1.5.2. The Instantaneous Hydrograph
1.6. How Does Forest Hydrology Differ from Hydrology?
1.7. What's Different About Australian Forest Hydrology?
2. Hydrologic Measurements and the Water Balance
2.2. Basics of Measurement on a Catchment
2.2.1. Rainfall and Hyetograph Measurement
2.2.2. Hydrograph Measurement
2.2.3. Measurements of Slope Water Storage
2.2.4. Measurement of Plant Water Use
2.3. Analysis of Streamflow Hydrographs
2.3.1. Flow Separation Analysis
2.4. Using Field Data to Form a Water Balance
2.5. Using "Zhang Curves" to Estimate Water Balance
2.5.1. Percentage Runoff and Rainfall Elasticity using Zhang Curves
3. The Fundamental Building Blocks -First Order Catchments
3.2. The Dominance of "Headwater Streams"
3.3. The Prototypical First Order Catchment and Streams
3.4. Groundwater Outflow vs Downslope Soil Movement
3.5. Colluvium and Bedrock Erosion
3.6. Moving Upstream - Can We Define Zero Order Streams?
3.6.1. Ephemerality of Low Order Streams
3.7. Beds and Streams
3.8. Hydrologic Characteristics of Forested Catchment Soils
3.9. Continuum Levels
3.10. Characteristic Outflow Behaviour of Catchment Elements
3.11. Similitude and Scaling of Catchment Processes
4. Dynamics of Catchment and Slope Processes
4.1. The Role of Science and Maths in Slope Dynamics
4.2. Overview of Dynamics of Slope Processes
4.3. The Stream Channel as a Connecting Link
4.4. Overland Flow and Slope Infiltration Measuring Infiltration
4.5. Saturated (Groundwater) and Unsaturated Flow
4.5.1. Applications of Groundwater Theory to Model Forest Slopes
4.5.2. "Perched" Groundwater and "Deep" Groundwater
4.5.3. Does a "Wave" of Groundwater Recharge Occur?
4.6. Slope Evaporation
4.7. Hewlett's Variable Source Area Concept of Stream Runoff
4.8. Use of Hydrographs to Examine Dynamic Processes
5. Field Measurement of Water Use of Forests
5.1. Why Study This?
5.2. Paired Catchment Experiments
5.2.1. What Is a Paired Catchment Project?
5.2.2. An Example of a Paired Catchment Project: Croppers Creek
5.2.3. Traditional Approach to Paired Catchment Calibration and Analysis
5.2.4. A Modern Example of Paired Catchment Statistical Treatment
5.2.5. What Time Units to Use?
5.2.6. How Long Does Calibration Need to Be?
5.2.7. Where Do Paired Catchments Sit in the World of Experiments?
5.2.8. Paired Catchment Projects in Australia
5.3. Single Catchment Studies of Water Use
5.4. Plot Measurements of Water Balance
5.4.1. Rachel Nolan and Impact of Fires
5.4.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Plot Hydrology Work
5.4.3. Where Do Plots Sit in the World of Experiments?
5.4.4. "Closing the Water Balance" on Plots
5.5. The Scaling Issue
5.5.1. Spreadsheet Approach of Weighted Assessment
5.5.2. Modelling Approach to Scaling
5.5.3. Scaling Up Controversies
5.6. In Conclusion
6. Impacts of Native Forest Management on Catchment Hydrology
6.1.1. Sources of Information and the Role of Science Melbourne's Water Catchment Debate; an Example of Meeting Information Needs
6.2. Fog Drip and Interception by Native Forests
6.2.1. Fog Drip
6.2.2. Canopy Interception
6.3. Basic Runoff Curves for Native Eucalypt Forest
6.4. Mountain Ash Water Use and Runoff Curves
6.4.1. Quantifying the Yield Decline - "Kuczera Curves"
6.4.2. Response to Logging
6.4.3. Other Melbourne Water Paired Catchment Logging Experiments
6.5. An "Age-Yield" Response for Non-Ash Eucalypts?
6.5.1. Yambulla Paired Catchment and Plot Studies
6.5.2. Karuah Paired Catchment Project
6.5.3. Tantawangalo Paired Catchment Project
6.5.4. Western Australian Work on Jarrah
6.5.5. Political Aspects of Native Forest Water Use
6.6. Thinning of Native Forests for Water Production
6.6.1. Thinning of Mountain Ash Forests
6.6.2. Thinning of Mountain Forest at Tantawangalo
6.6.3. Thinning of Jarrah
7. Hydrology of Man-Made Forests (Plantations)
7.1.1. What is Different About Plantations?
7.1.2. Are All Plantations the Same?
7.1.3. Defining the "Water Use" of a Plantation
7.2. Runoff Curve Approaches to Plantation Water Use
7.2.1. "Zhang Curves"
7.2.2. "Holmes and Sinclair" Relationships
7.2.3. Nanni Curves
7.3. Water Use of Radiata Pine on Well-Drained Sites
7.3.1. Absolute Water Use
7.3.2. Relative Change in Water Use
7.4. Water Use of Eucalyptus Plantations
7.5. Water Use When Plantations Can Tap Groundwater
7.6. Other Australian Plantation Species
7.7. Plantation Water Issues Around the World
7.7.1. Eucalyptus Plantations
7.8. Balancing the Hydrologic Benefits of Plantations
8. Impacts of Burning on Catchment Hydrology and Management
8.2. Case Study 1: Burning Croppers Creek in 2006
8.2.1. The dreaded "spike hydrograph"
Box 8.1: "Spike" Streamflows amd Human Issues
8.3. What Happens To Hydrology When a Catchment is Burnt
8.3.1. Soil Heating and "Brick" Formation
8.3.2. Water Repellency and Soil Infiltration
8.3.3. Runoff from Water Repellent Catchments
8.3.4. Erosion from Burnt Catchments
8.3.5. Water Quality Impacts from Burnt Catchments
8.3.6. The "Reseeder" Versus "Resprouter" Dichotomy
8.3.7. Twice-Burnt Areas
8.3.8. The Burnt Area Becomes Hotter
8.4. Post-Fire Hydrologic Rehabilitation
8.5. Case Study 2: The Macalister River Floods of 2007
8.6. Future Fire Hydrology Research in Australia
9. Water Quality and Nutrient Issues for Small Catchments
9.1. Why Measure Water Quality?
9.2. Planning a Water Quality "Campaign"
9.2.1. The Pure Water of Mountain Streams Makes Measurement Difficult!
9.2.2. What Parameter Should I Measure?
9.2.3. Water Sampling and Statistical Sampling Issues
9.2.4. Technology to the Rescue?
9.2.5. Water Quality Computations
9.2.6. Water Quality Snapshots
9.3. Case Study 1: The Croppers Creek Water Quality Study
9.3.1. Effects of Clearing and Planting with Radiata Pine
9.3.2. Effects of Fertilizers
9.3.3. Effects of Herbicides
9.3.4. Long Term Effects on Water Quality
9.3.5. Use of Biota as a Measure of Water Quality
9.3.6. Did the Project Provide the Information Required?
9.4. Case Study 2: Water Quality Effects of Forest Roads
9.5. Protection of Water Quality in Forestry Management
9.6. The Future of Forest Water Quality Studies
10. Flooding Forests
10.1.1. What is Meant by "Flooding Forests?"
10.1.2. The Distinction between Riparian Forests and Flooding Forests
10.1.3. Ecological Adaptation for Survival Under Flooding
10.1.4. The Forest as a Hydrologic Refugium
10.1.5. Australian and International Examples of Flooding Forests
10.1.6. Threats to Flooding Forests
10.2. Case Study 1: River Red Gum Forests of the River Murray
10.3. Case Study 2: Swamp Cypress Forests of the Atchafalaya Basin
10.4. Quantification of the Flooding Regime
10.4.1. Sources of Flood Water
10.4.2. Annual Flood Frequency and Annual Flood Duration
10.4.3. Flood Seasonality
10.4.4. Methods for Quantification
10.4.5. Chaotic Hydrologic Systems
10.5. Negotiations with River Managers on Forest Issues
11. Catchment Management Issues World-Wide
11.1. Issues, Issues Galore in Catchment Management
11.2. The Basic Water Supply Catchment
11.3. World's Best Practice in Catchment Management
11.4. The Public and Attitudes on Catchment Management
11.4.1. Sydney's Giardia Crisis
11.5. "Open" or "Closed" Catchments?
11.5.1. What is a "Closed Catchment?"
11.5.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Closed Catchments
11.6. How Much Forested Catchment Do We Need to Supply a City?
11.7. The Concept of Payment for Catchment Services
11.8. Economics of Forested Catchment Issues
11.8.1. Without Water There is No Economy
11.8.2. Long Time Periods Bedevil Compound Interest
11.8.3. Valuation of Water and Other Products
11.8.4. Managing for Catchment Resilience
11.9. Dealing with Disasters to the Catchment's Forests
11.10. Catchment Protection Issues
11.10.1. Road Drainage Management
11.10.2. Buffer Strips and Stream Protection
11.11. Two Case Studies of Catchment Management
11.11.1. City of Ballarat (Australia)
11.11.2. Quabbin Reservoir - United States
11.12. And Finally
Appendix 1: Map of Australia Showing Locations Mentioned in the Text
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