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Forest Measurements

By: TE Avery and HE Burkhart

408 pages, Figs, tabs

McGraw Hill

Paperback | Dec 2001 | Edition: 5 | #125725 | ISBN: 0071130055
Availability: Usually dispatched within 48 hours
NHBS Price: £37.99 $49/€42 approx

About this book

This updated and revised edition features coverage of non-timber forest resources, as well as increased coverage of statistical methods and sampling.


Preface1 Introduction1-1 Purpose of Book1-2 Need for Measurements1-3 Neasurement Cost Considerations1-4 Abbreviations and SymbolsNumerical Considerations1-5 Scales of Measurement1-6 Significant Digits and Rounding Off1-7 English Versus Metric SystemsPresenting Information1-8 Preparation of Graphs1-9 Preparation of Technical Reports1-10 Reviews of Technical LiteratureProblems2 Statistical Methods2-1 Introduction2-2 Bias, Accuracy, and Precision2-3 Calculating Probabilities2-4 Factorial Notation, Permutations, and CombinationsStatistical Concepts2-5 Analysis of Data2-6 Populations, Parameters, and Variables2-7 Frequency DistributionsStatistical Computations2-8 Mode, Median, and Mean2-9 The Range and Average Deviation2-10 Variance and Standard Deviation2-11 Coefficient of Variation2-12 Standard Error of the Mean2-13 Confidence Limits2-14 Covariance2-15 Simple Correlation Coefficient2-16 Expansion of Means and Standard Errors2-17 Mean and Vairance of Linear FunctionsSimple Linear Regression2-18 Definitions2-19 A Linear Equation2-20 A Sample Problem2-21 Indicators of Fit2-22 Regression Through the Origin2-23 Hazards of Interpretation2-24 Multiple RegressionProblemsReferences3 Sampling Designs3-1 Introduction3-2 Sampling Versus Complete Enumeration3-3 The Sampling FrameSimple Random and Systematic Sampling3-4 Simple Random Sampling3-5 Sampling Intensity3-6 Effect of Plot Size on Variability3-7 Systematic SamplingStratified Random Sampling3-8 Stratifying the Population3-9 Proportional Allocation of Field Plots3-10 Optimum Allocation of Field Plots3-11 Sample Size for Stratified SamplingRegression and Ratio Estimation3-12 Regression Estimation3-13 Comparison of Regression Estimation to Simple Random Sampling3-14 Ratio EstimationDouble Sampling3-15 Double Sampling with Regression and Ratio Estimators3-16 Double Sampling for StratificationCluster and Two-Stage Sampling3-17 Cluster Sampling3-18 Two-Stage SamplingSampling for Discrete Variables3-19 Simple Random Sampling for Attributes3-20 Cluster Sampling for Attributes3-21 Relative Efficiencies of Sampling PlansProblemsReferences4 Land Measurements4-1 Applications of SurveyingMeasuring Distances4-2 Pacing Horizontal Distances4-3 Chaining Horizontal Distances4-4 Methods of Tape Graduation4-5 Electronic Distance MeasurementUsing Magnetic Compasses4-6 Nomenclature of the Compass4-7 Magnetic Declination4-8 Allowance for Declination4-9 Use of the CompassArea Determination4-10 Simple Closed Traverse4-11 Graphical Area Determination4-12 DOT Grids4-13 Planimeters4-14 Transects4-15 Topographic MapsColonial Land Subdivision4-16 Metes and Bounds SurveysThe U.S. Public Land Survey4-17 History4-18 The Method of Subdivision4-19 The 24-Mile Tracts4-20 Townships4-21 Establishment of Sections and Lots4-22 Survey Field Notes4-23 Marking Land Survey LinesGlobal Positioning Systems4-24 Purpose of GPS4-25 How GPS Works4-26 GPS Accuracy4-27 Differential Correction4-28 GPS Data4-29 GPS ReceiversProblems References5 Cubic Volume, Cord Measure, and Weight Scaling5-1 Logs, Bolts, and Scaling Units5-2 Computing Cross-Sectional Areas5-3 Log Volumes and Geometric Solids5-4 Scaling by the Cubic Foot5-5 Inscribed Sqaure TimbersMeasuring Stacked Wood5-6 The Cord5-7 Solid Contents of Stacked Wood5-8 An Ideal MeasureWeight Scaling of Pulpwood5-9 The Appeal of Weight Scaling5-10 Variations in Weight5-11 Wood Density and Weight Ratios5-12 Advantages of Weight ScalingProblemsReferences6 Log Rules, Scaling Practices, and Specialty Wood Products6-1 Log Rules6-2 General Features of Board-Foot Log RulesDerivation of Log Rules6-3 Mill-Tally Log Rules6-4 Board Foot-Cubic Root Ratios6-5 Scribner Log Rule6-6 Doyle Log Rule6-7 International Log Rule6-8 Overrun and Underrun6-9 Board-Foot Volume ConversionsBoard-Foot Log Scaling6-10 Scaling Straight, Sound Logs6-11 Log Defects6-12 Board-Foot Deduction Methods6-13 Cull Percent Deduction Methods6-14 Merchantable Versus Cull Logs6-15 Scaling Records6-16 Log ScanningLog Grading6-17 Need for Log Grading6-18 Hardwood Log Grading6-19 Softwood Log GradingWeight Scaling of Sawlogs6-20 Advantages and Limitations6-21 Volume-Weight Relationships for SawlogsSpecialty Wood Products6-22 Specialty Products Defined6-23 Veneer Logs6-24 Poles and Piling6-25 Fence Posts6-26 Railroad Ties6-27 Mine Timbers6-28 Stumps for the Wood Naval-Stores Industry6-29 Bolts and Billets6-30 Fuel WoodProblemsReferences7 Measuring Standing Trees7-1 Tree Diameters7-2 Diameter at Breast Height for Irregular Trees7-3 Measuring Bark Thickness7-4 Tree Diameter Classes7-5 Basal Area and Mean Diameter7-6 Upper-Stem DiametersTree Heights7-7 Height Poles7-8 Height Measurement Principles7-9 Merritt Hypsometer7-10 Total Versus Merchantable Heights7-11 Sawlog Merchantability for Irregular StemsTree Form Expressions7-12 Form Factors and Quotients7-13 Girard Form Class7-14 Form MeasurementsTree Crowns7-15 Importance of Crown Measures7-16 Crown Width7-17 Crown Length7-18 Crown Surface Area and VolumeTree Age7-19 Definitions7-20 Age From Annual Rings7-21 Age Without Annual RingsProblemsReferences8 Volumes and Weights of Standing Trees8-1 Purpose of Volume and Weight Equations8-2 Types of Tree Volume and Weight EquationsMultiple-Entry Volume Tables8-3 Form-Class Versus Non-Form-Class Equations8-4 Compilation of MEsavage-Girard Form-Class Tables8-5 Constructing Multiple-Entry Volume Equations8-6 Selecting a Multiple-Entry Volume Equation8-7 Making Allowances for Various Utilization Standards8-8 Tree Volumes From Taper Equations8-9 Integrating Taper FunctionsSingle-Entry Volume Equations8-10 Advantages and Limitations8-11 Constructing a Single-Entry Equation from Measurements of Felled Trees8-12 Derivation from a Multiple-Entry Equation8-13 Tarif TablesTree Weight Equations8-14 Field Tallies by Weight8-15 Weight Equations for Tree Boles8-16 Biomass EquationsProblemsReferences9 Forest Inventory9-1 Introduction9-2 Classes of Timber Surveys9-3 Inventory Planning9-4 Forest Inventory and AnalysisSpecial Inventory Considerations9-5 Tree Tallies9-6 Electronic Data Recorders9-7 Tree-Defect Estimation9-8 The Complete Tree Tally9-9 Organizing the Complete Tree Tally9-10 Timber Inventory as a Sampling ProcessSummaries of Cruise Data9-11 Stand and Stock Tables9-12 Timber Volumes From Stump DiametersSales of Standing Timber9-13 Stumpage Value9-14 Methods of Selling Standing Timber9-15 Timber-Sale ContractsProblemsReferences10 Inventories with Sample Strips or Plots10-1 Fixed-Area Sampling UnitsStrip System of Cruising10-2 Strip-Cruise Layout10-3 Computing Tract Acreage From Sample Strips10-4 Field Procedure for Strip Cruising10-5 Pros and Cons of Strip CruisingLine-Plot System of Cruising10-6 The Traditional Approach10-7 Plot Cruise Example10-8 Sampling Intensity and Design10-9 Cruising Techniques10-10 Boundary Overlap10-11 Merits of the Plot SystemUse of Permanent Sample Plots10-12 Criteria for Inventory Plots10-13 Sample Units: Size, Shape, and Number10-14 Field-Plot Establishment10-15 Field-Plot Measurements10-16 Periodic ReinventoriesRegeneration Surveys with Sample Plots10-17 Need for Regeneration Surveys10-18 Stocked-Quadrat Method10-19 Plot-Count Method10-20 Staked-Point MethodProblems References 11 Inventories with Point Samples11-1 The Concept of Point Sampling11-2 Nomenclature and Variants11-3 Selecting a Sighting Angle11-4 Plot Radius FactorHow Point Sampling Works11-5 Imaginary Tree Zones11-6 Equality of Tree Basal Area on a Per-Acre BasisImplementing Point Sampling11-7 The Stick-Type Angle Gauge11-8 The Spiegel Relascope11-9 The Wedge Prism11-10 Calibration of Prisms or Angle Gauges11-11 Corrections for Slope11-12 Doubtful Trees, Limiting Distances, and Bias11-13 Boundary Overlap11-14 Choice of InstrumentsVolume Calculations11-15 Example of Computational Procedures11-16 Basal Area Per Acre11-17 Trees Per Acre11-18 Volume Per Acre by the Volume-Factor Approach11-19 Volume Per Acre by the Volume/Basal-Area Ratios Approach11-20 Estimating Precision11-21 Field Tally by Height Class11-22 Point Sampling in a Double-Sampling Context11-23 Estimating Growth from Permanent PointsPoint-Sample Cruising Intensity11-24 Comparisons with Conventional Plots11-25 Number of Sampling Points Needed

11-26 Point Samples Versus Plots11-27 Attributes and LimitationsProblemsReferences12 Inventories with 3P Sampling12-1 Introduction12-2 Components of 3P InventoryHow 3P is Applied12-3 Timber-Sale Example12-4 Preliminary Steps12-5 Field Procedure12-6 Sample-Tree Measurement12-7 3P Computations12-8 Numerical ExampleExtensions, Attributes, and Limitations of Basic 3P Sampling12-9 Extensions of Basic 3P Sampling12-10 Attributes and Limitations of 3P SamplingProblemsReferences13 Using Aerial Photographs13-1 Purpose of Chapter13-2 Types of Aerial Photographs13-3 Black-and-White Aerial Films13-4 Color Aerial Films13-5 Seasons for Aerial Photography13-6 Determining Photographic Scales13-7 Photogeometry13-8 Aligning Prints for Stereoscopic StudyCover-Type Identificaion and Mapping13-9 Forest Type Recognition13-10 Identifying Individual Species13-11 Timber Type Maps13-12 Using Photos for Field TravelBasic Forest Measurements13-13 Measuring Area and Distance13-14 Measuring Heights by Parallax13-15 Parallax-Measuring Devices13-16 Tree-Crown Diameters13-17 Tree Counts13-18 Individual-Tree Volumes13-19 Aerial Stand-Volume Tables13-20 Crown Closure13-21 Stand-Volume Estimates13-22 Adjusting Photo Volumes by Field ChecksObtaining Aerial Photographs13-23 The Options13-24 Photography from Commercial Firms13-25 Photography from the U.S. Government13-26 Photography from the Canadian Government13-27 Taking Your Own Pictures13-28 Contracting For New Photography13-29 Other Remote-Sensing ToolsProblemsReferences14 Geographic Information Systems14-1 What is a GIS?GIS Data Structures14-2 Data Formats14-3 Raster Data14-4 Vector Data14-5 Raster Versus Vector SystemsGeographic Coordinate Systems14-6 Types of Coordinate Systems14-7 The Latitude and Longitude System14-8 The Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System14-9 The State Plane Coordinate SystemGIS Data Sources, Entry, and Quality14-10 Deriving Digital Maps14-11 Existing Map Data14-12 Digitizing and Scanning14-13 Field and Image Data14-14 Errors and AccuracyGIS Analysis Functions14-15 Analysis-The Power of GIS14-16 Spatial Analysis Functions14-17 Cartographic ModelingProblemsReferences15 Site, Stocking, and Stand Density15-1 The Concepts of Site15-2 Direct Measurement of Forest Productivity15-3 Tree Height as a Measure of Site Quality15-4 Field Measurement of Site Index15-5 Construction of Site-Index Curves15-6 Interspecies Site-Index Relationships15-7 Periodic Height Growth15-8 Physical-Factors Approach15-9 Indicator-Plant Approach15-10 Limitations of Site IndexStocking and Stand Density15-11 Definitions15-12 Measures of Stocking15-13 Basal Area Per Acre15-14 Trees Per Acre15-15 Stand-Density Index15-16 3/2 Law of Self-Thinning15-17 Relative Spacing15-18 Crown Competition Factor15-19 Stocking Guides15-20 Measures of Point DensityProblemsReferences16 Tree-Growth and Stand-Table Projection16-1 Increases in Tree Diameter16-2 Increases in Tree Height16-3 Periodic and Mean Annual Growth16-4 Past Growth From Complete Stem Analysis16-5 Tree Growth as a Percentage Value16-6 Predictions of Tree Growth16-7 Future Yields from Growth Percentage16-8 Growth Prediction from Diameter and Height IncreasesStand-Table Projection16-9 Components of Stand Growth16-10 Characteristics of Stand-Table Projection16-11 Diameter Growth16-12 Stand Mortality and Ingrowth16-13 A Sample Stand ProjectionProblemsReferences17 Growth and Yield Models17-1 Introduction17-2 Growth and Yield Relationships17-3 Mathematical Relationships Between Growth and YieldGrowth and Yield Models for Even-Aged Stands17-4 Normal Yield Tables17-5 Empirical Yield Tables17-6 Variable-Density Growth and Yield Equations17-7 Size-Class Distribution Models17-8 Example of Computatins for Size-Class Distribution Model17-9 Individual-Tree Models for Even-Aged StandsGrowth and Yield Models for Uneven-Aged Stands17-10 Special Considerations in Modeling Uneven-Aged Stands17-11 Growht and Yield Equations Based on Elasped Time17-12 Size-Class Distribution Models Using Stand-Table Projection17-13 Individual-Tree Models that Include Uneven-Aged StandsApplying Growth and Yield Models17-14 Enhancing Output from Growth and Yield Models17-15 Choosing an Appropriate Growth and Yield Model17-16 A Word of CautionProblemsReferences18 Assessing Rangeland, Wildlife, Water,and Recreational Resources18-1 Purpose of ChapterMeasuring Rangeland Resources18-2 Forage Resources18-3 Planning Range Measurements18-4 Sampling Considerations18-5 Determining Grazing Capacity18-6 Clipped-Plot Technique18-7 Range-Utilization Estimates18-8 Range Condition and TrendMeasuring Wildlife Resources18-9 Animal Populations and Habitat18-10 Population Estimates18-11 Habitat MeasurementMeasuring Water Resources18-12 Importance of Water18-13 Factors Affecting Runoff18-14 Physical Characteristics of a Watershed18-15 Measurement of Water Quantity18-16 Measurement of Water QualityMeasuring Recreational Resources18-17 The Problem18-18 Visitor Use of Recreational Facilities18-19 Assessing Potential Recreational SitesProblemsReferencesAnswers to Selected ProblemsGlossay

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