Most publications on heavy metals and the environment have focused on environmental pathways and risks. The present book establishes a link between the environmental risks of heavy metals and the societal causes of the risks. Economic models, substance flow models and environmental fate and risk assessment models have been integrated into a single analytical framework that has been used to trace and understand the routes by which four heavy metals enter the economy, through to their final destination in the environment. The long-term impacts of the current metals management regime in the Netherlands have been used as a case study by which to assess the effectiveness of certain policy measures.
Preface. Part I: Introduction. I.1. General Introduction; E. van der Voet, et al. I.2. Basic concepts and approaches; E. van der Voet, et al. Part II: Models for the Analysis and Management of Heavy Metals in the Netherlands. II.1. General modeling issues for economic and substance flow models; M.N. Bouman. II.2. FLUX, a tool for substance flow analysis; X. Olsthoorn, J. Boelens. II.3. Economic analysis of Material-Product Chains; P.P.A.A.H. Kandelaars, J.C.J.M. van den Bergh. 11.4. Heavy-metal balances of agricultural soils; S.W. Moolenaar, T.M. Lexmond. II.5. Dynabox: A dynamic multi-media fate model for the case of heavy metals; R. Heijungs. II.6. Sustainability indicators for the case of heavy metals; .E van der Voet, et al. 11.7. Combining SFA and economic models; M.N. Bouman, et al. Part III: Applications of the Developed Models. III.1 Metals in the Netherlands: application of FLUX, Dynabox and the indicators; E. van der Voet, et al. III.2. Applications of Material-Product Chain analysis; P.P.A.A.H. Kandelaars, J.C.J.M. van den Bergh. III.3. Applications of dynamic balances in agricultural systems; S.W. Moolenaar, T.M. Lexmond. Part IV: Toward Sustainable Metals Management: Three Scenarios for Copper and Zinc Management in the Netherlands. IV.1. Introduction; E. van der Voet, L. van Oers. IV.2. The generation of solutions for the environmental problems related to zinc and copper in the Netherlands; E. van der Voet, L. van Oers. IV.3. Results of the scenario calculations; L. van Oers, et al. IV.4. Discussion and conclusions; E. van der Voet, L. van Oers. Part V: Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations. V.1. Summary of results. V.2. Conclusions. V.3. Recommendations. Glossary.
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