Series: SCOPE - Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment Volume: 46
A report on the risks to human and non-human life associated with environmental chemicals.
Part 1 Joint report: exposure measurements - definition of exposure, objectives of exposure assessment, approaches for determining exposures, study designs, human gastro-intestinal and skin exposure, non-human exposure, uses of existing data, recommendations; modeling of transport and alteration of chemicals - the use of models in exposure assessment, stages of modeling processes, summary of models, when are simple models applicable?, the limitations of modeling of transport and fate, estimation methods, laboratory/field consistency of coefficients, uncertainty of transfer coefficients, alternative approaches to validation, examples of exposure calculation, recommendations; biological monitoring of exposure to chemicals - toxicokinetics, determination of internal dose, biological exposure markers, advantages and limitations of biological markers, ecological responses as indicators of exposure, recommendations, references; analytical methods - air. Part 2 Contributed chapters: techniques to estimate potential exposures to chemicals in the environment, John D.Spingler and Lance A.Wallace; geographically based models for surface and estuarine waters and river/aquifer interfaces, Jean J.Fried; time integrated compartment models, Helge Gydesen; modeling chemical transport in the unsaturated zone of the subsurface, Warren T.Piver; geographically-based atmospheric models, D.M.Whelpdale; some specifications of multimedia exposure monitoring assessment, K.A.Bustueva; comparative analysis of indoor and outdoor TSP concentrations in Bombay, Toronto and Zagreb, M.Fugus and H.W.de Koning; micro-area vs. personal monitoring - estimation of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), Naihua Duan, et al; sampling and analysis of water to assess exposure, A.J.Dobbs and D.T.E.Hunt; monitoring systems for the assessment of dietary intakes of contaminants, G.K.Gheorghiev; quantifying chemicals in groundwater used for human consumption, Warren T.Piver; methods for assessing exposure of insects, V.Landa et al; biological markers in environmental epidemiology - constraints and opportunities, Peter H.Gann et al; biological monitoring in the epidemiology of chronic effects of cadmium in workers, Janusz A.Indulski and Marek Jakubowski; measurement of macromolecular adducts as indicators of carcinogen exposure, R.Colin Garner; role of cytogenetic surveillance to assess exposure to carcinogens, Harri Vainio and Marja Sorsa; measurement of metabolites as indicators of exposure to chemicals, Stuart A.Slorach; direct indicators of exposure - monitoring chemicals in tissues, body fluids, urine and exhaled air, R.L.Zielhuis; statistical methods to estimate human exposure to environmental pollutants, Mel Kolander; Part contents.
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