Upon ligand binding, cell-surface receptors transmit activity signals into the cell, activating multiple metabolic and mitogenic pathways. Although the nature of the stimulatory molecules is infinitely varied, the principles involved in propagating the signals are ubiquitous. Thus, such different stimulators as antigens, cytokines, hormones, and growth factors use similar transduction principles, including ligand-induced receptor internalisation of receptor-ligand complexes, activation of G proteins, aligomerisation, increases in Ca2+ uptake, activation of tyrosine kinases or other kinases and phosphatases, protein phosphorylation or dephosphorylation, and the triggering of oncogenes and transcription factors. The signalling molecules interact with each other through universal "zippers", such as SH2 and SH3 domains. This volume integrates the work of the most significant contributors to the field in elucidating the mechanisms involved in these signal transduction pathways.
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