The North, with its vast and varied landscapes, sparse population, and cold climate has always challenged its explorers: physically, mentally, logistically, and technically. The scientific community in particular has known such challenges in the past and does so today, especially in light of the projected intensification of climate change at high latitudes. Indeed, there are clear signs that change is already ongoing in many environmental variables: Air temperature and annual precipitation (including snowfall) are increasing in many regions; spring snow cover extent is decreasing; lake and river ice freeze-up dates are occurring later and breakup dates earlier; glaciers are retreating rapidly; permafrost temperatures are increasing and, in many cases, the permafrost is thawing; and sea-ice extent is at record minimums and thinning.
Claude R. Duguay and Alain Pietroniro vii
Claude R. Duguay and Alain Pietroniro 1
Remote Sensing of Snow Cover
Dieter Scherer, Dorothy K. Hall, Volker Hochschild, Max K. Onig, Jan-Gunna Wrinther, Claude R. Duguay, Frederique Pivot, Christian Mazier, Frank Rau, Klaus Seidel, Rune Solberg, and Anne E. Walker 7
Remote Sensing of Glaciers and Ice Sheets
Jan-Gunna Wrinther, Robert Bindschadler, Max K. Onig, and Dieter Scherer 39
Ice Characteristics and Processes, and Remote Sensing of Frozen Rivers and Lakes
Martin O. Jeffries, Kim Morris, and Nickolai Kozlenko 63
Satellite Remote Sensing of Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground
Claude R. Duguay, Tingjun Zhang, David W. Leverington, and Vladimir E . Romanovsky 91
Remote Sensing of Surface Water and Soil Moisture
Alain Pietroniro, Jessika Toyra, Robert Leconte, and Geoff Kite 119
Evaporation/Evapotranspiration Estimates With Remote Sensing
Raoul Grange rand Normand Bussibres 143
Appendix: Acronyms 155
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