Chapter topics include: Environmental Problems and Statistics. A Brief Review of Statistics. Plotting Data. Smoothing Data. Seeing the Shape of a Distribution. External Reference Distributions. Accuracy, Bias, and Precision of Measurements. Precision of Calculated Values. Fundamentals of Process Control Charts. Specialized Control Charts. Limit of Detection. Censored Data. Paired t -Test for Assessing the Average of Differences. Independent t-Test for Assessing the Difference of Two Averages. Multiple Paired Comparison of k Averages. Experimental Design. Sizing the Experiment. Analysis of Variance to Compare k Averages. Components of Variance. Multiple Factor Analysis of Variance. Factorial Experimental Designs. Fractional Factorial Experimental Designs.Correlation. Serial Correlation. The Method of Least Squares. Precision of Parameters in Linear Models. Precision of Parameters in Nonlinear Models. Weighted Least Squares. Empirical Model Building by Linear Regression. The Coefficient of Determination, R2. Data Adjustment for Process Rationalization. How Measurement Errors Propagate into Calculated Values. Using Simulations to Study Statistical Problems. Introduction to Time Series Modeling. Forecasting Time Series. Intervention Analysis. Appendix-Statistical Tables.