521 pages, 146 b/w illustrations
The Evolution of Matter explains how all matter in the Universe developed following the Big Bang and through subsequent stellar processes. It describes the evolution of interstellar matter and its differentiation during the accretion of the planets and the history of the Earth.
Unlike many books on geochemistry, The Evolution of Matter follows the chemical history of matter from the very beginning to the present, demonstrating connections in space and time. It provides also solid links from cosmochemistry to the geochemistry of Earth. The Evolution of Matter presents comprehensive descriptions of the various isotope systematics and fractionation processes occurring naturally in the Universe, using simple equations and helpful tables of data. With a glossary of terms and over 900 references, The Evolution of Matter is a valuable reference for researchers and advanced students studying the chemical evolution of the Earth, the Solar System and the wider Universe.
"[...] the latest and most comprehensive contribution to this important and growing genre. [...] The Evolution of Matter will provide advanced undergraduates and Earth science professionals with an unusually broad and integrated view of isotope cosmo- and geo-chemistry, from the ancient origin of atoms to the modern living Earth. [...] an engaging historical narrative."
"Overall, The Evolution of Matter is a good, deep and readable combination of the textbook and monograph, which brought under one cover a link between cosmo- and geochemistry; solar system formation and evolution; Earth's core, crust and mantle. It also combines a description of sophisticated geodynamic models with considerable cosmo-geochemical reference information."
- Pure and Applied Geophysics
Part I. The Elements:
1. Isotopes – weights and abundances
2. Introduction to the universe – the baryonic matter
3. Element and isotope abundances – reference collection
4. Cosmological nucleosynthesis – production of H and He
5. Stellar nucleosynthesis – lower mass stars and s-process
6. Stellar nucleosynthesis – r- and associated processes
7. Timing of stellar nucleosynthesis
8. Chemical evolution of the galaxy
Part II. Early Solar System – Nebula Formation, Evolution and Lifetime:
9. Introduction to the solar nebula
10. The primary solar system objects and related processes
11. Chondritic meteorites
12. Highly processed meteorites
13. A summary of early solar system chronology
Part III. Accretion of the Earth:
14. Introduction to the planetary system, earth and moon
15. Introduction to planetary accretion
16. Earth accretion – the giant impact(s)
17. The post-accretion silicate earth – comparison with meteorites
18. Core segregation
19. Heavy 'crust' on the top of the core
20. The early atmo-hydrophere
21. Light from the moon…
Part IV. Global Evolution of the Earth:
22. First look on the Earth
23. The plate tectonic concept – some phenomenology
24. Oceanic ridge and island magmatism
25. Subduction and island arc magmatism
26. Composition of the continental crust – magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary processes
27. Isotopic records of the evolution of the earth's accessible reservoirs
28. Geochemical earth model
List of meteorites, rocks and minerals
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Igor Tolstikhin was awarded a Ph.D. in geochemistry from the St Petersburg Mining Institute in 1966 and a D.Sc. from the Vernadsky Institute, Moscow, in 1975. He is currently a Senior Research Scientist at the Russian Academy of Sciences where his research has encompassed noble gases, radiogenic isotope geochemistry, isotope hydrology, and geochemical modelling. His more recent contributions include a chemical Earth model with wholly convective mantle.
Jan Kramers was awarded a Ph.D. from the University of Berne in Switzerland in 1973 and went on to work in South Africa, the UK and Zimbabwe, before returning to the University of Berne, where he is currently Professor of Geochemistry in the Institute of Geological Sciences. Professor Kramer's research interests include mantle geochemistry (kimberlites, diamonds), the origin of Archaean continental crust, global radiogenic isotope systematics, early evolution of the Earth's atmosphere, and, more recently, palaeoclimate research using the speleotherm archive.