The Conservation Handbook: Research, Management and Policy
Textbooks on the principles of conservation biology abound, but how does one put this theoretical knowledge into practice? The aim of The Conservation Handbook is to provide clear guidance on the implementation of conservation techniques. The wide range of methods described include those for ecological research, monitoring, planning, education, habitat management and combining conservation with development. 18 case studies illustrate how the methods have been applied. All those who have looked in vain for a conservation manual will find this book is an indispensable reference.
Assessing biodiversity. Why assess biodiversity? - biodiversity assessment techniques - Total species list - Case Study of the discovery and conservation of the saola - total genera or family list - parallel-line searches - habitat subsampling - uniform effort - time restricted search - encounter rates - species discovery curves - Mackinnon lists - timed species counts - recording absence - habitat feature assessment - documenting rarities - collecting - labelling - preservatives - collecting plants, fungi, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals - ethnobotany - atlases - case study of the southern African frog atlas project - habitat mapping - remote sensing - databases.
Setting Conservation Prorities. Why set Conservation Priorities? - prioritising species - vulnerability to extinction - taxonomic isolation - what is a species? - flagship species - introduced species - likelihood of species recovery - prioritising species within areas - prioritising habitats - hot spots of global biodiversity - endemic bird areas - centres of plant diversity - important taxon areas - prioritising areas and selected reserves.
Monitoring. Why Monitor? - bias and accuracy - long term data sets - sampling - stratified sampling - monitoring plots - indices and censuses - counting recognisable individuals - quadrats and strip transects - distance sampling: line transets and point counts - mapping - mark/release/recapture frequency of capture - catch per unit effort - monitoring plants - total counts of plants - quadrats - seed sorting - measures of vegetation density - monitoring invertebrates - direct searching for invertebrates - beating for invertebrates - water traps for invertebrates - light traps for invertebrates - emergence traps for invertebrates - pitfall traps for invertebrates - sweep, pond and tow nets - benthic cores for invertebrates - monitoring fish - fish traps - gill and dip nets - electrofishing - transects and point counts for fish - monitoring amphibians: drift fencing - direct counts of amphibians - monitoring reptiles: mark - release - recapture of reptiles - direct observations of reptiles - monitoring birds: - direct counts of birds - transects for birds - point counts for birds - territory mapping - monitoring mammals: - direct counts of mammals - transects of mammals - mapping mammals - trapping mammals - dung counts - monitoring environmental variables: temperature - rainfall - water depth - water flow - evapotraspiration - wind speed - pH - underwater light - salinity - water chemistry - soil characteristics - monitoring human impact: - photographic monitoring -
Ecological Research Techniques. Why Carry Out Research? - designing a research project - experiments - hygienic fieldwork - determining habitat use - radio tracking - diet analysis - ageing and sexing - plants, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals - pollination biology: determining the breeding system - identifying the pollinators. Marking Individuals: - plants, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals. Studying the Fate of Individuals: - measuring breeding output - measuring mortality. Determining the Cause of Illness or Death: - collecting material for examination - autopsies - identifying plant pathogens - determining why eggs fail. Modelling Populations Changes: - principles of population ecology - creating population models. Risk of Extinction: - processes in small populations - population viability models - Case Study: estimating the population viability of a re-established white-tailed eagle population. Molecular Techniques: - identifying individuals and relatives - identifying species and populations - ten major statistical errors in conservation.
Diagnosis and Prediction. Why Diagnose Problems? - a need for evidence-based conservation? diagnosing why species have declined - case study: the Lord Howe Woodhen: diagnosis and recovery - predicting the ecological consequences of changes - environmental impact assessment - strategic environmental assessment.
Conservation Planning. Why Plan? - the planning process - the species action plan process - writing a species action plan - case study: the UK corncrake species action plan - the site management plan process - writing a management plan.
Organisational Management and Fund Raising. Why is Organisational Management Important? - leadership and management: leadership - delegation. Types of conservation organisations and their problems - collaboration between organisations. Meetings: generating ideas in meetings - crisis management - fund raising - grants.
Education and Ecotourism Why Educate? - planning and running an education programme - case study: conservation stickers in sumba - case study: public involvement in the conservation of Tiritiri Matanga island, New Zealand - case study: Global Rivers EnvironmentalEducation Network - identification guides - ecotourism - case study: managing tourism in the Antarctic.
Bringing About Political and Policy Changes. Why Enter Politics? - campaigning - case study: water extraction in Mon Lake - publicity: case study: international collaboration to reduce pesticide poisoning. Negotiating and conflict resolution - changing legislation - case study: reducing traffic damage to a roadside reserve - meetings - economic instruments - the importance of international agreements: Convention on Global Biodiversity (1992) - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973) (CITES) - Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (1979) (Bonn Convention) - Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (1971) (Ramsar Convention).
Species Management. Why Manage Species? - manipulating wild populations - creating breeding sites - supplementary food - hand pollination - controlling parasites - controlling predators, herbivores and competitors - eradication of problem species - control of problem species - exclusion of problem species - changing the behaviour of problem species - captive breeding - plant propagation: seed storage - re-establishments: determining feasibility and desirability of re-establishments - release protocol - monitoring of re-establishments - case study: Brush-tailed Phascogale re-establisment - learning from experiments.
Habitat Management. Habitat Management or Wilderness Creation? - the need for research - case study: wild nature in the Dutch Oostvaardersplassen - size, isolation and continuity - disturbance - retaining old habitats - grazing - burning - hydrology - understanding the hydrology - water management - water quality - habitat creation, restoration and translocation - waterbeds - trees and shrubs - grass and herbaceous communities - reefs - translocation - managing access: zoning - car parks and footpaths - visitors centres and hides.
Exploitation. Why Manage Exploitation? - benefits of exploitation - why does overexploitation occur? - determining sustainable yields: surplus yield models - yield per recruit models - Robinson and Redford models - relating yield to recruitment and mortality - adjusting in relation to population changes - Lotka-Volterra model. Case study: Moose exploitation - Case Study: Goose management in North America. Full population model - adaptive management - controlling exploitation - discouraging illegal persecution - Case Study: anti-poaching strategy to protect the Amur tiger. Criminal detection.
Integrating Development and Conservation. Why Combine Development and Conservation? - approaches for combining development and conservation - regulations to restrict access or use - increasing the value of natural resources - alternatives to damaging exploitation - development as part of a package - benefit sharing - general principles for integrated conservation development projects - Case Study: combining development and conservation in Kilum-Ijim forest, Cameroon. Participatory development - the project cyle. Case Study: Coral Reef and Fisheries Management in the Philippines. Identification - Planning - Appraisal - Implementation - Monitoring - Completion - Evaluation. Basic methods for conservation development projects: key questions - participatory research and monitoring techniques - stakeholder analysis - problem trees and objective trees - options analysis - logical framework analysis - risk analysis - identifying and allocating tasks - stakeholder participation matrix - Capacity Building. References.
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Related organisations include:
- Biodiversity Action Network
- British Wildlife
- Conservation Handbook Gratis Copies Project
- East Africa Natural History Society / Nature Kenya
- Ecology Matters
- Nature Conservancy
- Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust