1: Setting the Scene. 1.1. Introduction. 1.2. The Influence of the Torrey Canyon Incident. 1.3. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO). 1.4. Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL). 1.5. The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU). 1.6. The Current Situation Regarding Spillage Response. 1.7. The Exxon Valdez Incident. 1.8. The Sea Empress Incident. 1.9. The Current Position and Prospects for the Future. 1.10. Scope Of the Present Book.2: The Oil-Water System. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Droplet Migration Rates (Stokes' Law). 2.3. Droplet Coalescence. 2.4. Oil Tanker Operations. 2.5. General Ship Operations. 2.6. The IMO Test Specification for Oil-Water Separators. 2.7. The Performance of Separators on the IMO Test. 2.8. Port Reception Facilities and Special Area Status. 2.9. On-Line Oil-in-Water Monitoring. 2.10. Emulsions of Water-in-Oil. 2.11. Dispersion of Oil and Emulsion as Droplets. 2.12. Assessment and Conclusions. 3: Factors Affecting the Fate of Oil After Release at Sea. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Processes Which Affect Released Oil. 3.3. Combustion. 3.4. Physical Properties of Oils Relevant to the Above Processes. 3.5. Classification of Oils on the Basis of Physical Properties.3.6. Dispersion Rates Estimated on the Basis of the Physical Properties Classification. 3.7. The Advection-Diffusion Model of Dispersive Spreading of Oil Slicks. 3.8. The Use of Computerised Fate Models and Databases. 3.9. Assessment and Conclusions. 4: Environmental Impacts and Physical Consequences Relevant to Response Design. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. The Marine Ecosystem. 4.3. Quantification of Inputs. 4.4. The Nature of the Effects. 4.5. Comparison of Biological and Economic Effects. 4.6. Observed Impacts at Past Oil Releases. 4.7. Strategy, Aims, and Objectives of Oil Spill Response. 4.8. Factors Relevant to the Development of Response Techniques and Equipment. 4.9. Assessment and Conclusions. 5: The Use of Dispersants. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Dispersant Approvals Scheme. 5.3. Means of Dispersant Application. 5.4. Choice of Aircraft for Dispersant Spraying Operations. 5.5. Viscosity Limits on Dispersant Effectiveness. 5.6. Further Investigation of Operational Dispersant Spraying. 5.7. Investigation of Demulsifier Action On Emulsified Slicks at Sea. 5.8. The Feasibility of Oil Slick Combustion as an Alternative to Dispersant Treatment. 5.9. The Need for More Efficient Dispersants and Demulsifiers. 5.10. Future Investigation of Dispersant Action. 5.11. Assessment and Conclusions. 6: Oil Recovery From Water Surfaces. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Criteria for Boom Design and Selection. 6.3. Elements of Boom Design. 6.4. Performance of Booms. 6.5. Modes of Deployment for Booms. 6.6. Other Possible Collection and Containment Systems. 6.7. Performance of Oil Skimmers. 6.8. Inshore Vessel Mounted Skimmer Systems. 6.9. Seagoing Recovery Systems. 6.10. Current Status of the Mechanical Recovery Approach. 6.11. A New Approach to Mechanical Recovery at Sea. 6.12. The Forsey-Pimm Liquid Separator. 6.13. Assessment and Conclusions. 7: Remote Sensing and Surface Sampling of Oil. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Sensor Requirements for Spill Response Management and Illegal Discharge Detection. 7.3. Available and Developing Remote Sensing Techniques. 7.4. Theoretical and Practical Considerations. 7.5. Investigation of Slick Thickness by Remote Sensing. 7.6. Oil Characterisation by Remote Sensing. 7.7. Review of Sensor Performance in Relation to Requirements. 7.8. Oil Sampling to Establish the Source of Detected Surface Oil. 7.9. Assessment and Conclusions. 8: The Treatment of Stranded Oil on Shorelines. 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. Shoreline Types. 8.3. The Use of Dispersants on Shorelines. 8.4. The Use of Beach Protection Chemicals. 8.5. Recovery of Emulsions from Shorelines by Mechanical Means. 8.6. Removal of Solid Oil Deposits and Tar Balls. 8.7. The Physical and Biological Impact of Shore Cleaning Techniques. 8.8. Bioremediation. 8.9. Clay Mineral-Oil Flocculation. 8.10. Burning Oil in Ice Conditions. 8.11. Processing of Recovered Emulsions. 8.12. Initial and Intermediate Storage. 8.13. Recycling, Productive Use or Final Disposal. 8.14. Treatment, Use and Disposal of Oil Contaminated Beach Material. 8.15. Separation of Oil from Beach Material after Removal from Beach Surface. 8.16. Assessment and Conclusions. 9: Contingency Arrangements. 9.1. Introduction. 9.2. Limits of Owner/Operator Liability. 9.3. Division of Responsibility Between National and Local Government. 9.4. The Relationship Between Central Government and Others. 9.5. Operational Aspects of the National Contingency Plan. 9.6. Port and Harbour Authorities, and Local Government Authorities. 9.7. Powers of Intervention. 9.8. Cargo Transfer. 9.9. The Need for a Safe Haven Policy. 9.10. Assessment and Conclusions. 10: The Sea Empress Incident. 10.1. Introduction.10.2. Oil Properties and Persistence. 10.3. Evaporation and the Implications for Explosion and Fire Risks. 10.4. Estimation of Dispersant Effectiveness. 10.5. Reported Effectiveness of Mechanical Recovery at Sea. 10.6. Estimation of the Effectiveness of Natural Dispersion. 10.7. Estimation of the Quantity of Emulsion Likely to Strand. 10.8. Amounts of Emulsion Reported as Having Stranded. 10.9. Comparison of Estimated and Reported Strandings. 10.10. Shoreline Cleaning. 10.11. Operational Capacities and Limitations. 10.12. The Lack of Capacity to Deal with Greater Amounts of Pollutant. 10.13. Salvage Aspects in Relation to the Sea Empress Incident. 10.14. Assessment and Conclusions. 11: Possible Incident Scenarios and Response Needs Based on the Sea Empress Experience. 11.1. Introduction. 11.2. The Pattern of Projected Oil Releases. 11.3. Pattern of Onshore and Offshore Winds Which Would Influence the Projected Oil Releases. 11.4. Oil Properties, Evaporative Loss and Emulsion Formation. 11.5. Estimation of Likely Effectiveness of Counter-Pollution Effort at Sea. 11.6. Estimation of Emulsion Removal by Natural Dispersion. 11.7. Consideration of the Potential Shoreline Cleaning Task. 11.8. Explosion and Fire. 11.9. Salvage and Ship-to-Ship Transfer Requirements. 11.10. Assessment and Conclusions. 12: Suggestions for Future Work. 12.1. Introduction. 12.2. IMO Regulations. 12.3. Persistence of Released Oil. 12.4. Dispersants. 12.5. Mechanical Recovery. 12.6. Cargo and Bunker Transfer Arrangements. 12.7. Shoreline Cleaning. 12.8. Disposal of Waste Arisings. 12.9. Emulsion Breaking. 12.10. Combustion. 12.11. The Technology of Cargo Transfer. 12.12. General Conclusions, Contingency Planning, Training and Exercises. Index.