Introduction. Part 1: Policy Instruments. 1. Markets for Tradeable Co2 Emission Quotas: Principles and Practice; G. Chilchilnisky, G. Heal. 2. Costs of Uniform and Differentiated Charges on a Polluting Input: An Application to Nitrogen Fertilisers in Sweden; R. Brannlund and I.-M. Gren. Part 2: Cost-Benefit Analysis. 3. On the Proper Treatment of Defensive Expenditures in 'Green' NNP Measures; T. Aronsson, et al. 4. Preserving Species Without an Endangered Species Act: British Columbia's Forest Practices Code; G.C. van Kooten. 5. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Alternative Waste Treatment in Northern Norway. Use of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) instead of Coal in an Industrial Process. A Preliminary Analysis; J.A. Riseth, Y. Torbergsen. Part 3: Cost Efficiency. 6. Emission Constraints, Emission Permits and Marginal Abatement Costs; G. Heal. 7. Wetlands as a Nitrogen Sink -- Estimation of Costs in The Laholm Bay; O. Bystrom. 8. Cost Effective Reductions in the Agricultural Load of Nitrogen to the Baltic Sea; K. Elofsson. Part 4: Contingent Valuation -- Theory and Applications. 9. Valuing the Wolf in Sweden: Are Benefits Contingent on the Supply; M. Boman, G. Bostedt. 10. A Test of Nonresponse Bias in a Mail Contingent Valuation Survey; P. Fredman. 11. Determination of WTP for a Change in Water Quality with Free Selection of Reference Points; E. Mantymaa. Part 5: Experimental Economics and the Contingent Valuation Method. 12. Statistical Bias Functions: The Alchemy of Contingent Valuation? P. Frykblom. 13. Environmental Damage Assessment with Hypothetical Surveys: The Calibration Approach; G.W. Harrison, et al. List of Contributors. Subject Index.