Part I: Analysis and methodology. Can ecological theory cross the land-sea interface? A modern view of applied time series analysis; The great ocean conveyer; Integration of spatial analysis in long-term ecological studies; A general review of dynamical systems; Analysis of long-time series; Part II: Comparisons of scales. Physical and biological scales of variability in lakes, estuaries, and the coastal ocean; Ecological variability at the land-sea interface; Scales of variability in the Central Pacific; Temporal variability in the North Atlantic; Planning long-term vegetation studies at landscape scales; Comparisons of ecological time series; Part III: Processes and principles. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology; Long-term environmental change; Physical dynamics and ecological processes: The North Atlantic model; Long-term trends in an Arctic ecosystem; Epidemiological approaches in ecological modelling; The invisible present; Ecological processes in time series.