In this volume, the fourth and the largest to be published, 268 species are covered. Many of the genera have caused serious problems in identification, but based on the large number of specimens illustrated on the 25 colour plates, the species can now be identified much more easily. In additional black and white photos for species which are difficult to identify, differential characters are pointed out with arrows. As in the previously published volumes 1, 2 and 4, maps with the European distribution are given with dots for verified specimens. There are photographs of male and female genitalia of all species and this volume also contains a systematic catalogue of the European species including those of the neighbouring regions of North Africa, Macaronesia, Turkey and the Middle East. This is the first volume including genetic information from DNA barcoding which proved to be a useful, additional tool in identification, taxonomy and species delimitation.
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