Books  Environmental Science  Environmental Science: General 

Environmental Chemistry


By: Stanley E Manahan

753 pages, b/w illustrations, tables

CRC Press

Hardback | Dec 2009 | Edition: 9 | #185460 | ISBN-13: 9781420059205
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £73.99 $92/€86 approx

About this book

The field of environmental chemistry has evolved significantly since the publication of the first edition of Environmental Chemistry. Throughout the book’s long life, it has chronicled emerging issues such as organochloride pesticides, detergent phosphates, stratospheric ozone depletion, the banning of chlorofluorocarbons, and greenhouse warming. During this time the first Nobel Prize for environmental chemistry was awarded. Written by environmental chemist Stanley Manahan, each edition has reflected the field’s shift of emphasis from pollution and its effects to its current emphasis on sustainability.

What makes this book so enduring? Completely revised, this ninth edition retains the organizational structure that has made past editions so popular with students and professors while updating coverage of principles, tools, and techniques to provide fundamental understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. It includes end-of chapter questions and problems, and a solutions manual is available upon qualifying course adoptions. Rather than immediately discussing specific environmental problems, Manahan systematically develops the concept of environmental chemistry so that when he covers specific pollutions problems the background necessary to understand the problem has already been developed.

New in the Ninth Edition:
- revised discussion of sustainability and environmental science
- updates information on chemical fate and transport, cycles of matter
- examination of the connection between environmental chemistry and green chemistry
- coverage of transgenic crops
- the role of energy in sustainability
- potential use of toxic substances in terrorist attacks

Manahan emphasizes the importance of the anthrosphere – that part of the environment made and operated by humans and their technologies. Acknowledging technology will be used to support humankind on the planet, it is important that the anthrosphere be designed and operated in a manner that is compatible with sustainability and that it interacts constructively with the other environmental spheres. With clear explanations, real-world examples, and updated questions and answers, the book emphases the concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology, and chemistry while introducing the newest innovations in the field. Readily adapted for classroom use, a solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption.


The Environment and Sustainability Science
From the Sun to Fossil Fuels and Back Again
The Science of Sustainability
Chemistry and the Environment
Water, Air, Earth, Life, and Technology
Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and the Biosphere
Energy and Cycles of Energy
Human Impact and Pollution
Chemical Fate and Transport
Chemical Fate and Transport in the Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Geosphere
Environmental Mischief and Terrorism
Environmental Forensics
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Chemistry and the Anthrosphere: Environmental Chemistry and Green Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Matter and Cycles of Matter
Anthrosphere and Environmental Chemistry
Technology and the Anthrosphere
Components of the Anthrosphere That Infl uence the Environment
Effects of the Anthrosphere on Earth
Integration of the Anthrosphere into the Total Environment
Green Chemistry
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistry
Importance of Water
Water from Molecules to Oceans
Characteristics of Bodies of Water
Aquatic Life
Introduction to Aquatic Chemistry
Gases in Water
Water Acidity and Carbon Dioxide in Water
Calcium and other Metals in Water
Complexation and Chelation
Bonding and Structure of Metal Complexes
Calculations of Species Concentrations
Complexation by Deprotonated Ligands
Complexation by Protonated Ligands
Solubilization of Lead Ion from Solids by NTA
Polyphosphates and Phosphonates in Water
Complexation by Humic Substances
Complexation and Redox Processes
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Oxidation–Reduction in Aquatic Chemistry
The Signifi cance of Oxidation–Reduction
Electron and Redox Reactions
Electron Activity and pE
The Nernst Equation
Reaction Tendency: Whole Reaction from Half-Reactions
The Nernst Equation and Chemical Equilibrium
The Relationship of pE to Free Energy
Reactions in Terms of One Electron-Mole
The Limits of pE in Water
pE Values in Natural Water Systems
pE–pH Diagrams
Humic Substances as Natural Reductants
Photochemical Processes in Oxidation–Reduction
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Phase Interactions in Aquatic Chemistry
Chemical Interactions Involving Solids, Gases, and Water
Importance and Formation of Sediments
Colloidal Particles in Water
Colloidal Properties of Clays
Aggregation of Particles
Surface Sorption by Solids
Solute Exchange with Bottom Sediments
Interstitial Water
Phase Interactions in Chemical Fate and Transport
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Aquatic Microbial Biochemistry
Aquatic Biochemical Processes
The Prokaryotic Bacterial Cell
Kinetics of Bacterial Growth
Bacterial Metabolism
Microbial Transformations of Carbon
Biodegradation of Organic Matter
Microbial Transformations of Nitrogen
Microbial Transformations of Phosphorus and Sulfur
Microbial Transformations of Halogens and Organohalides
Microbial Transformations of Metals and Metalloids
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Water Pollution
Nature and Types of Water Pollutants
Elemental Pollutants
Heavy Metals
Organically Bound Metals and Metalloids
Inorganic Species
Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication
Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity
Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants
Organic Pollutants
Pesticides in Water
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes
Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Water Treatment
Water Treatment and Water Use
Municipal Water Treatment
Treatment of Water for Industrial Use
Sewage Treatment
Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Removal of Solids
Removal of Calcium and Other Metals
Removal of Dissolved Organics
Removal of Dissolved Inorganics
Water Disinfection
Natural Water Purifi cation Processes
Green Water
Water Conservation
Protecting Water Supplies from Attack
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Chemistry
The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Chemistry
Importance of the Atmosphere
Physical Characteristics of the Atmosphere
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Atmospheric Mass Transfer, Meteorology, and Weather
Inversions and Air Pollution
Global Climate and Microclimate
Chemical and Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere
Acid–Base Reactions in the Atmosphere
Reactions of Atmospheric Oxygen
Reactions of Atmospheric Nitrogen
Atmospheric Water
Influence of the Anthrosphere
Chemical Fate and Transport in the Atmosphere
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Particles in the Atmosphere
Particles in the Atmosphere
Physical Behavior of Particles in the Atmosphere
Physical Processes for Particle Formation
Chemical Processes for Particle Formation
The Composition of Inorganic Particles
Toxic Metals in the Atmosphere
Radioactive Particles
The Composition of Organic Particles
Effects of Particles
Water as Particulate Matter
Atmospheric Chemical Reactions Involving Particles
Control of Particulate Emissions
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Gaseous Inorganic Air Pollutants
Inorganic Pollutant Gases
Production and Control of Carbon Monoxide
Fate of Atmospheric CO
Sulfur Dioxide Sources and the Sulfur Cycle
 Sulfur Dioxide Reactions in the Atmosphere
Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere
Acid Rain
Ammonia in the Atmosphere
Fluorine, Chlorine, and their Gaseous Compounds
Reduced Sulfur Gases
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions And Problems

Organic Air Pollutants
Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere
 Biogenic Organic Compounds
Pollutant Hydrocarbons
Carbonyl Compounds: Aldehydes and Ketones
Miscellaneous Oxygen-Containing Compounds
Organonitrogen Compounds
Organohalide Compounds
Organosulfur Compounds
Organic Particulate Matter
Hazardous Air Pollutants Organic Compounds
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems
Photochemical Smog
Smog-Forming Emissions
Smog-Forming Reactions of Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere
Overview of Smog Formation
Mechanisms of Smog Formation
Reactivity of Hydrocarbons
Inorganic Products from Smog
Effects of Smog
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

The Endangered Global Atmosphere
Climate Change and Anthropogenic Effects
Global Warming
Green Science and Technology to Alleviate Global Warming
Acid Rain
Stratospheric Ozone Destruction
Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Atmospheric Damage by Photochemical Smog
Nuclear Winter
What Is to Be Done?
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

The Geosphere and Geochemistry
The Nature of Solids in the Geosphere
Physical Form of the Geosphere
Internal Processes
Groundwater in the Geosphere
Environmental Aspects of the Geosphere
Surface Earth Movement
Stream and River Phenomena
Phenomena at the Land/Ocean Interface
Phenomena at the Land/Atmosphere Interface
Effects of Ice
Effects of Human Activities
Air Pollution and the Geosphere
Water Pollution and the Geosphere
Waste Disposal and the Geosphere
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Soil and Agricultural Environmental Chemistry
Soil and Agriculture
Nature and Composition of Soil
Acid−Base and Ion-Exchange Reactions in Soils
Macronutrients in Soil
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Soil
Pollutants from Livestock Production
Pesticides and their Residues in Soil
Wastes and Pollutants in Soil
Soil Loss and Degradation
Saving the Land
Genetic Engineering and Agriculture
Green Chemistry and Sustainable Agriculture
Agriculture and Health
Protecting the Food Supply from Attack
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Green Chemistry and Industrial Ecology
Changing the Bad Old Ways
Green Chemistry
Reduction of Risk: Hazard and Exposure
Waste Prevention and Green Chemistry
Green Chemistry and Synthetic Chemistry
Stoichiometric and Catalytic Reagents
Media and Solvents
Enhancing Reactions
Industrial Ecology
The Five Major Components of an Industrial Ecosystem
Industrial Metabolism
Materials Flow and Recycling in an Industrial Ecosystem
The Kalundborg Industrial Ecosystem
Consideration of Environmental Impacts in Industrial Ecology
Life Cycles: Expanding and Closing the Materials Loop
Life-Cycle Assessment
Consumable, Recyclable, and Service (Durable) Products
Design for Environment
Inherent Safety
Industrial Ecology and Ecological Engineering
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Resources and Sustainable Materials
Where to Get the Stuff We Need?
Minerals in the Geosphere
Extraction and Mining
Metal Resources and Industrial Ecology
Nonmetal Mineral Resources
Wood: A Major Renewable Resource
Extending Resources through the Practice of Industrial Ecology
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything
Energy Problem
Nature of Energy
Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere
Energy Devices and Conversions
Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency
Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization
Industrial Ecology for Energy and Chemicals
Nuclear Energy
Geothermal Energy
The Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source
Energy from Moving Air and Moving Water
Biomass Energy
Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy
Combined Power Cycles
A System of Industrial Ecology for Methane Production
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Nature, Sources, and Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes
Classifi cation of Hazardous Substances and Wastes
Sources of Wastes
Flammable and Combustible Substances
Reactive Substances
Corrosive Substances
Toxic Substances
Physical Forms and Segregation of Wastes
Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes
Physical and Chemical Properties of Hazardous Wastes
Transport, Effects, and Fates of Hazardous Wastes
Hazardous Wastes and the Anthrosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Geosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Hydrosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Atmosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Biosphere
Hazardous Substances in Terrorism
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Industrial Ecology for Waste Minimization, Utilization, and Treatment
Waste Reduction and Minimization
Physical Methods of Waste Treatment
Chemical Treatment: An Overview
Green Waste Treatment by Photolyis and Sonolysis
Thermal Treatment Methods
Biodegradation of Wastes
Land Treatment and Composting
Preparation of Wastes for Disposal
Ultimate Disposal of Wastes
Leachate and Gas Emissions
In Situ Treatment
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Environmental Biochemistry
Biochemistry and the Cell
Nucleic Acids
Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering
Metabolic Processes
Metabolism of Xenobiotic Compounds
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Toxicological Chemistry
Introduction to Toxicology and Toxicological Chemistry
Dose–Response Relationships
Relative Toxicities
Reversibility and Sensitivity
Xenobiotic and Endogenous Substances
Toxicological Chemistry
Kinetic Phase and Dynamic Phase
Teratogenesis, Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Effects On the Immune and Reproductive Systems
Health Hazards
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Toxicological Chemistry of Chemical Substances
Toxic Elements and Elemental Forms
Toxic Inorganic Compounds
Toxicology of Organic Compounds
Toxic Natural Products
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater
General Aspects of Environmental Chemical Analysis
Classical Methods
Spectrophotometric Methods
Electrochemical Methods of Analysis
Mass Spectrometry
Analysis of Water Samples
Automated Water Analyses
Emerging Contaminants in Water Analysis
Chiral Contaminants
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Analysis of Wastes and Solids
Sample Digestion for Elemental Analysis
Analyte Isolation for Organics Analysis
Sample Cleanup
Sample Preparation for VOCs
Bioassay and Immunoassay Screening of Wastes
Determination of Chelating Agents
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Analysis of the Atmosphere and Air Pollutants
Atmospheric Monitoring
Methods of Analysis
Determination of Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrogen Oxides
Analysis of Oxidants
Analysis of Carbon Monoxide
Determination of Hydrocarbons and Organics
Analysis of Particulate Matter
Direct Spectrophotometric Analysis of Gaseous Air Pollutants
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Analysis of Biological Materials and Xenobiotics
Indicators of Exposure to Xenobiotics
Determination of Metals
Determination of Nonmetals and Inorganic Compounds
Determination of Parent Organic Compounds
Measurement of Phase I And Phase II Reaction Products
Determination of Adducts
The Promise of Immunological Methods

Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

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Stanley E. Manahan is professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Missouri--Columbia, where he has been on the faculty since 1965. He received his AB in chemistry from Emporia State University in 1960 and his PhD in analytical chemistry from the University of Kansas in 1965. Since 1968 his primary research and professional activities have been in environmental chemistry, toxicological chemistry, and waste treatment. His classic textbook, Environmental Chemistry, has been in print continuously in various editions since 1972 and is the longest standing title on this subject in the world. His other books are Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, 3rd ed. (Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2009), Fundamentals of Sustainable Chemical Science (Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2009), Environmental Science and Technology, 2nd ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2006), Green Chemistry and the Ten Commandments of Sustainability, 2nd ed. (ChemChar Research, Inc, 2006), Toxicological Chemistry and Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (CRC Press/Lewis Publishers, 2001), Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste (CRC Press/Lewis Publishers, 1999), Hazardous Waste Chemistry, Toxicology and Treatment (Lewis Publishers, 1992), Quantitative Chemical Analysis (Brooks/Cole, 1986), and General Applied Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Willard Grant Press, 1982).

Dr. Manahan has lectured on the topics of environmental chemistry, toxicological chemistry, waste treatment, and green chemistry throughout the United States as an American Chemical Society Local Section Tour Speaker and has presented plenary lectures on these topics in international meetings in Puerto Rico; the University of the Andes in Merida, Venezuela; Hokkaido University in Japan; the National Autonomous University in Mexico City; France; and Italy. He was the recipient of the Year 2000 Award of the Environmental Chemistry Division of the Italian Chemical Society. His research specialty is gasification of hazardous wastes.

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