Part 1 Introduction: central questions; some preliminary answers; focus of the book; organization and overview; target audience. Part 2 Urban form and the meaning of development: modernization theory; dependency theory; conceptualizing development; development as economic growth; the evolving meaning of development; development as redistribution; development as basic need fulfillment; auto-centred development; sustainable development; colonial spatial and physical structures; colonialism and colonial urban forms; conclusion. Part 3 Pre-colonial human settlement planning: traditional architecture and spatial development; traditional settlements and the natural environment; indigenous culture and spatial organization; the Mbuti pygmies of Ituri Forest; the bushmen of the Kalahari Desert; the Mettas of Cameroon; Yoruba spatial and residential development; conclusion. Part 4 Colonial urban and spatial planning laws: planning theory and urban spatial development; colonial planning laws and spatial strategies; the purpose of colonial planning laws; conclusion. Part 5 Post-colonial urban planning: planning legislation and the colonial legacy; planning law and process; land use regulation; case studies; European antecedents to post-colonial planning; zoning and health problems; conclusion. Part 6 Received land laws and land use control measures: received land laws and development; the nature and role of the state in Africa; the state, received planning laws and society; land reforms and elite members of society; socio-economic development implications; land reforms and development; major classes of land; conclusion. Part 7 Conventional housing policy: the concept of uncertainty; uncertainty in planning; uncertainty in development projects; conventional housing programmes; government supplied housing; slum and squatter eradication; employer-supplied housing; minimum required standards; uncertainty of quantitative realities; uncertainty in qualitative realities; conclusion. Part 8 Squatter settlements and second-best housing policies: changing perceptions and second-best policies; colonial urban policies and squatter housing; second-best housing policies; history and evolution of second-best policies; the evolution of self-help housing; the role of international forces; discussion and conclusion. Part 9 External forces, transportation and development: colonial transport infrastructure development; colonial spatial organization strategies; international and inter-regional transportation; implications of transfer technology; recommendations and conclusion.