Sugarcane: important commercial crop; history of sugarcane; sugarcane productivity. Role of biotechnology in crop improvement: history of biotechnology; biotechnology in agriculture. Modern bioanalytical tools in crop improvement: fragmentation of DNA; recombinant DNA technology; physical methods of gene transfer; molecular markers; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP); gene expression; analysis of recombinant DNA. Sugarcane technology: plant tissue culture in agriculture; in vitro selection of desirable variants in crop plants; tissue culture studies in sugarcane. Immunodiagnostic studies for detection of sugarcane diseases: methodology; standardization of DAC-ELISA. Biological softwares in sugarcane cultivation: biofertilizers; vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza; biocontrol agents; biodrainage concept. Molecular biotechnology in sugarcane: molecular marker studies; genetic engineering studies in sugarcane.