Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment in Coastal and Estuarine Environments. European Approaches to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment. Emerging Contaminants of Concern in Coastal and Estuarine Environments. Enhancing Belief during Causality Assessments: Cognitive Idols or Bayes's Theorem? Bioavailability, Biotransformation and Fate of Organic Contaminants in Estuarine Animals. The Bioaccumulation of Mercury, Methylmercury and Other Toxic Elements into Pelagic and Benthic Organisms. Dietary Metals Exposure and Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms: Implications for Ecological Risk Assessment. Endocrine Disruption in Fishes and Invertebrates: Issues for Saltwater Ecological Risk Assessment. The Use of Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) to Assess the Risks Persistent Organochlorines Pose to Marine Mammals. Effects of Chronic Stress on Wildlife Populations: A Population Modeling Approach and Case Study. Structuring Population-based Ecological Risk Assessments in a Dynamic Landscape. Incremental Chemical Risks and Damages in Urban Estuaries: Spatial and Historical Ecosystem Analysis. Epilogue - Ecological Risk Assessment in Coastal and Estuarine Environments.