Part 1 Interrelationship: environmental interrelationships, environmental ethics. Part 2 Ecological principles and their application: interrelated scientific principles - matter, energy, and environment, interaction - environment and organisms, kinds of ecosystems and communities, population principles, human population issues. Part 3 Energy, energy and civilisation - patterns of consumption, energy sources, nuclear energy: benefits and risks. Part 4 Human influences on ecosystems: human impact on resources and ecosystems, land-use planning, soil and its use, agricultural methods and pest management, water management. Part 5 Pollution and policy, risk and cost: elements of decision making, air pollution, solid waste management and disposal, regulating hazardous materials, environmental policy and decision making.