The problem - oil spills: Freedom of the seas - developing law; Major oil spill rates; Environmental damage - the debate; Reoccurrence of spills - root causes/risk factors; Available oil spill response technologies: limiting factors; Other limiting factors - lack of integration of science and engineering, coordination in planning and training. The need and the solution: Prevention through people - the human element; Oil spill response - "Best Response"; Best response - the US model for oil spill response; Best response - the international oil spill response model - OPRC Convention; Efficient and effective response - gaps in delivery, enforcement, funding and perception; Scientific challenges. The motivators for change related to oil spills: Reducing response costs; Reducing environmental damage; True cost accounting; Protection of the environment is good for business; Adherence to laws - ISM Code/Right to Trade; The consumer and the political system - public voice. Legislation and regulation: The safety nets; Regulation of oil spills - control by international conventions; US and international regulations and the courts. Regulatory model - Australia. The marriage between science and technology: Failures of present oil spill contingency planning, response, education and training strategies; The need for a scientifically-based decision-making tool; Best response. The technology windows-of-opportunity oil spill response strategy: Technology windows-of-opportunity; Examples of technology windows-of-opportunity; Universality of application; Required databases; Oil spill detection and monitoring by remote sensing advanced technologies; Integration of the databases and information into an oil spill response decision-making tool. Sustainable shipping.