Books  Sustainable Development  Economics, Business & Industry  Economics, Business & Industry: General 

Making Global Trade Work for People

By: United Nations Development Programme

341 pages, Figs, tabs

Earthscan

Paperback | Dec 2003 | #137648 | ISBN: 1853839825
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £36.99 $47/€44 approx
Hardback | Dec 2003 | #137651 | ISBN: 1853839817
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NHBS Price: £99.99 $126/€119 approx

About this book

Addresses a range of critical questions. For example: Do trading arrangements - current and proposed - maximize the possibilities of development? Can a developing country's autonomy be preserved while respecting the legitimate objectives of advanced industrial countries to maintain high labour, social and environmental standards at home? Would such a regime be human-development friendly? Looks in detail at the way the current multilateral trade regime has worked under the World Trade Organization tracing its origins from the GATT, analysing how it can be improved, for it to genuinely contribute to human development.

'The UNDP and its co-sponsors deserve the world's thanks for this authoritative and up-to-date analysis of why so many advocates of human development have so much trouble supporting either the fashionable general enthusiasm for trade liberalization or a good many of the specifics of the current international trade regime. Professional and hard-hitting, it addresses what could, with the necessary political will, be done to make trade and the global trade policy regime at last truly work for human development. It must be read by trade policy-makers and analysts in both North and South. Its challenges simply cannot be ignored' Gerry Helleiner, Professor, Department of Economics, Distinguished Research Fellow, Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto 'In a field that treats all social issues as external to the analysis, this book breaks new ground. It makes people and the work they do central, showing the different ways in which trade policy affects the lives of women and men - with consequences for the whole society. As such, it challenges policy-makers to ask new questions, and find a way to make trade policy really work for human development' Noeleen Heyzer, Executive Director, United Nations Development Fund for Women 'The emerging world trade regime is being shaped by the interests of rich countries. The concerns of poor countries and poor people, in their pursuit of development, are largely neglected. The rules of the game for trade are, therefore, asymmetrical in construct and inequitable in outcome. This book provides an in-depth and perceptive analysis of these asymmetries in the multilateral trading system, to suggest reform and change from a human development perspective. It develops a powerful argument for capturing the possible synergies between trade and human development and makes concrete proposals which are most persuasive. Its message that the well-being of humankind is the essence of development is particularly important in a milieu which often forgets that trade is a means and not an end' Deepak Nayyar, Vice Chancellor, University of Delhi 'This book is essentially a call for a paradigm shift in trade discourse. It convincingly argues that trade, especially with developing countries and the least developed among them, should be seen not as an end in itself but as a means to achieve development. In this context the nexus linking trade and human development is unmistakable. The efficacy of domestic trade policies and the validity of multilateral trade rules and the system itself should be judged against this central anchor and changed where necessary. The book challenges policy-makers in major economies to understand why developing countries, especially the least developed ones, are demanding significant changes to the current multilateral trade system. The book's messages and proposals should be heeded, so that current imbalances which engender unequal development and an unequal sharing of the benefits of globalization can be reversed' Ali Said Mchumo, Deputy Secretary General, East African Community, former Ambassador of the United Republic of Tanzania to the WTO (1995-2002), Chair of its General Council (Feb 1999-Feb 2000) and Coordinator for the Least Developed Countries in the WTO (2001)


Contents

CONTENTS PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABBREVIATIONS GLOSSARY OVERVIEW MAKING GLOBAL TRADE WORK FOR PEOPLE PART 1 TRADE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT-THE CONCEPT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS LINKING TRADE AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IS TRADE LIBERALIZATION GOOD FOR GROWTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? DOES TRADE LIBERALIZATION IMPROVE GENDER OUTCOMES? HOW DO GENDER INEQUALITIES AFFECT TRADE PERFORMANCE? WHAT REALLY MATTERS FOR TRADE AS PART OF A BROADER INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY KEY MESSAGES NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 2 THE GLOBAL TRADE REGIME CAN THERE BE FAIR OUTCOMES WITHOUT FAIR PROCESSES? THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION-A MAJOR SHIFT IN GLOBAL TRADE RULES THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION'S FORMAL GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT ANNEX 2.1 EXCEPTIONS FROM WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION COMMITMENTS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ANNEX 2.2 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AGREEMENTS NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 3 TOWARDS A HUMAN DEVELOPMENT-ORIENTED GLOBAL TRADE REGIME THE MULTILATERAL TRADE REGIME AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT A TRADE REGIME FRIENDLY TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IS POSSIBLE FROM A MARKET EXCHANGE TO A HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 4 REFORMS TO THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE OF TRADE CHANGES NEEDED IN THE GLOBAL TRADE REGIME BACKGROUND ANALYSIS AND ADDITIONAL ISSUES ANNEX 4.1 REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND THE MULTILATERAL REGIME NOTES REFERENCES PART 2 AGREEMENTS AND ISSUES CHAPTER 5 AGRICULTURE SHOULD AGRICULTURE BE TREATED DIFFERENTLY? TARIFFS AND MARKET ACCESS SUBSIDIES FOOD SECURITY, EMPLOYMENT AND LIVELIHOODS PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 6 COMMODITIES A BRIEF HISTORY THE SITUATION TODAY PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE NOTE REFERENCES CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS MARKET ACCESS SINCE THE URUGUAY ROUND HIGHER TARIFFS AND POLICY SPACE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE WAY FORWARD NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 8 TEXTILES AND CLOTHING THE ROAD TO AGREEMENT ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING: A HISTORICAL REVIEW GROWTH IN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE THE UNDERLYING DYNAMICS OF THE AGREEMENTS ON TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE FACTORS AND EVENTS INFLUENCING THE PRESENT SITUATION IN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE THE FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE REFERENCES CHAPTER 9 ANTI-DUMPING THE FAULTY ECONOMIC LOGIC OF ANTI-DUMPING-INDUSTRY AND CONSUMERS BOTH SUFFER PROBLEMS WITH ANTI-DUMPING METHODOLOGY EFFECTS OF ANTI-DUMPING ON DEVELOPING COUNTRY EXPORTERS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES' GROWING USE OF ANTI-DUMPING THE WAY FORWARD REFERENCES CHAPTER 10 SUBSIDIES DEFINITION OF AND LIMITS ON SUBSIDIES ISSUES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THE WAY FORWARD REFERENCES CHAPTER 11 TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS THE TRIPS AGREEMENT TRIPS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: LINKS WITH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TRIPS 'PLUS' SETTING THE AGENDA ANNEX 11.1 MAIN PROVISIONS OF THE TRIPS AGREEMENT ANNEX 11.2 TRIPS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 12 TRADE-RELATED INVESTMENT MEASURES AND INVESTMENT THE TRIMS AGREEMENT WHERE WE ARE NOW THE WAY FORWARD INVESTMENT NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 13 GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES FEATURES AND STRUCTURE OF THE AGREEMENT OPPORTUNITIES PROVIDED BY THE AGREEMENT PROBLEMS CREATED BY THE AGREEMENT: ACTUAL FLEXIBILITY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS OF THE AGREEMENT AT THE SECTORAL LEVEL: OPERATIONALIZING BENEFICIAL ARTICLES THE WAY FORWARD NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 14 COMPETITION POLICY EXPERIENCE WITH DOMESTIC COMPETITION POLICY AND LESSONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE NEED FOR DOMESTIC COMPETITION POLICY IN TODAY'S WORLD AN INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT ON COMPETITION POLICY IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION THE WAY FORWARD NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 15 TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT UNDER THE MULTILATERAL TRADE REGIME THE DEVELOPMENT DILEMMA A DIRECTION FOR THE FUTURE NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 16 TRADE FACILITATION POTENTIAL FOR INCREASED VULNERABILITY IMPLEMENTATION AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS A WAY FORWARD NOTE REFERENCES CHAPTER 17 STANDARDS ISSUES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A WAY FORWARD NOTE REFERENCES CHAPTER 18 TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY WHY DO ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND THE MEASURES USED TO ACHIEVE THEM MATTER TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? DO SOCIETIES FACE TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN HIGH ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND TRADE AND INVESTMENT FLOWS? WHAT PRINCIPLES SHOULD GUIDE THE MANAGEMENT OF TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND TRADE POLICIES? WHICH PROCEDURES AND INSTITUTIONS SHOULD BE ENTRUSTED WITH MANAGING TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND TRADE POLICIES? A WAY FORWARD REFERENCES CHAPTER 19 STRENGTHENING CAPACITIES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AFTER DOHA NOTE REFERENCES

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Biography

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest UN agency, working in every member country around the world. The editor, Kamal Malhotra is a senior member of the UNDP's Bureau for Development Policy.

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