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Fisheries Ecology and Management

By: Carl J Walters and Steven J D Martell

448 pages, 95 illus, 7 tabs

Princeton University Press

Paperback | Dec 2004 | #147937 | ISBN: 0691115451
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NHBS Price: £54.99 $70/€65 approx
Hardback | Dec 2004 | #147939 | ISBN: 0691115443
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About this book

Walters and Martell develop models that account for key ecological dynamics such as trophic interactions, food webs, multi-species dynamics, risk-avoidance behaviour, habitat selection and density-dependence. They treat fisheries policy development as a two-stage process, first identifying strategies for varying harvest in relation to changes in abundance, then finding ways to implement such strategies in terms of monitoring and regulatory procedures. This book provides a general framework for developing assessment models in terms of state-observation dynamics hypotheses, and points out that most fisheries assessment failures have been due to inappropriate observation model hypotheses rather than faulty models for ecological dynamics.

An extremely valuable book... [W]e believe this to be a very important text for fisheries ecology and management. Reviews in Fish Biolgy and Fisheries


Contents

LIST OF FIGURES xi LIST OF TABLES xvii PREFACE xix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxi PART ONE: CHANGING OBJECTIVES AND EMERGING ASSESSMENT METHODS 1 CHAPTER 1: Introduction 3 1.1 The Role of Predictive Models 3 1.2 The Distinction between Fish Science and Fisheries Science 5 1.3 Approaches to Prediction of Policy Impact 6 1.4 Experimental Management 9 1.5 The Ecological Basis of Sustainable Harvesting 12 CHAPTER 2: Trade-Offs in Fisheries Management 20 2.1 Trade-Off Relationships and Policy Choices 22 2.2 Short-Term versus Long-Term Values 25 2.3 Biological Diversity versus Productivity 31 2.4 Economic Efficiency versus Diversity of Employment Opportunities 37 2.5 Allocation of Management-Agency Resources 39 PART TWO: ELEMENTARY CONCEPTS IN POPULATION DYNAMICS AND HARVEST REGULATION 41 CHAPTER 3: Strategic Requirements for Sustainable Fisheries 43 3.1 Harvest Optimization Models 46 3.2 Constructing Feedback Policies 49 3.3 Feedback Policy Implementation 58 3.4 Feedback Policies for Incremental Quota Change 61 3.5 Actively Adaptive Policies 63 CHAPTER 4: Tactics for Effective Harvest Regulation 65 4.1 Tactical Options for Limiting Exploitation Rates 67 4.2 Managing the Risk of Depensatory Effects under Output Control 69 4.3 Tactics for Direct Control of Exploitation Rates 74 4.4 Regulation of Exploitation Rates in Recreational Fisheries 77 4.5 In-Season Adaptive Management Systems 79 4.6 Monitoring Options and Priorities 80 4.7 Maintaining Genetic Diversity and Structure in Harvested Populations 83 PART THREE: USE AND ABUSE OF SINGLE-SPECIES ASSESSMENT MODELS 87 CHAPTER 5: An Overview of Single-Species Assessment Models 89 5.1 Objectives of Single-Species Assessment 89 5.2 State-Observation Components 91 5.3 Estimation Criteria and Measuring Uncertainty 95 5.4 Modeling Options 101 5.5 Using Composition Information 110 5.6 Dealing with Parameters That Aren't 121 CHAPTER 6: Foraging Arena Theory (I)124 6.1 Beverton-Holt Model for Stock-Recruitment 128 6.2 Alternative Models Based on Juvenile Carrying Capacity 132 6.3 Using Foraging Arena Arguments to Derive the Beverton-Holt Model 136 6.4 Implications for Recruitment Research and Prediction 147 CHAPTER 7: Problems in the Assessment of Recruitment Relationships 151 7.1 Which Parameters Matter? 152 7.2 Predicting Reproductive Performance at Low Stock Sizes 158 7.3 Predicting Capacity to Recover from Historical Overfishing 160 7.4 The Errors-in-Variables Bias Problem 162 7.5 The Time-Series Bias Problem 165 7.6 Can Statistical Fisheries Oceanography Save the Day? 173 PART FOUR: MODELING SPATIAL PATTERNS AND DYNAMICS IN FISHERIES 179 CHAPTER 8: Spatial Population Dynamics Models 181 8.1 Life-History Trajectories 182 8.2 Multistage Models 185 8.3 Eulerian Representation 188 8.4 Lagrangian Representation 193 8.5 Policy Gaming with Spatial Models 198 CHAPTER 9: Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Fishing Effort 200 9.1 Long-Term Capacity 201 9.2 Short-Term Effort Responses 204 9.3 Spatial Allocation of Fishing Effort 210 9.4 Mosaic Closures 223 PART FIVE: FOOD WEB MODELING TO HELP ASSESS IMPACT OF FISHERIES ON ECOLOGICAL SUPPORT FUNCTIONS 229 CHAPTER 10: Foraging Arena Theory (II)231 10.1 Understanding Foraging Arena Theory 232 10.2 Predicting Trophic Flows 236 10.3 Adding Realism (I): Foraging Time Adjustments 240 10.4 Adding Realism (II): Trophic Mediation 244 10.5 Ecosim 246 10.6 Representing Trophic Ontogeny in Ecosim 248 10.7 Single-Species Dynamics from Ecosim Rate Equations 252 10.8 Ecosystem-Scale Variation 254 CHAPTER 11: Options for Ecosystem Modeling 256 11.1 Qualitative Analysis of Dominant Trophic Interactions 259 11.2 Qualitative Analysis of More Complex Linkages 270 11.3 Models That Link Dynamics with Nutrient Cycling Processes 271 11.4 Representation of Mesoscale Spatial-Policy Options 276 11.5 Individual-Based Size-and Space-Structured Models 283 CHAPTER 12: Parameterization of Ecosystem Models 286 12.1 Parameterizing Models 287 12.2 Parameter Estimates from Experimental Data 289 12.3 Estimating Parameters from Mass Balance Snapshots 292 12.4 Challenging Ecosystem Models with Data 300 PART SIX: STRATEGIES FOR ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT 311 CHAPTER 13: Marine Enhancement Programs 313 13.1 Things That Can Go Wrong 317 13.2 Critical Steps in Enhancement Program Design 326 13.3 Monitoring and Experimental Requirements 331 CHAPTER 14: Options for Sustainable Ecosystem Management 334 14.1 Alternative Visions of Ecosystem Structure 335 14.2 Moving Toward Sustainable Ecosystem Management 344 APPENDIX: Definitions for Mathematical Symbols 349 BIBLIOGRAPHY 355 INDEX 381

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Biography

Carl J. Walters is Professor at the Fisheries Centre at University of British Columbia. He is the author, with Ray Hilborn, of "Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment and Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources". Steven J.D. Martell is Assistant Professorof Fisheries at the University of Maryland.

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