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Sea Lavendar, Rust and Mildew: A Perennial Pathosystem in the Netherlands

By: JC Zadoks

250 pages, 100 tabs, 100 figs

Wageningen Academic Publishers

Paperback | Dec 2005 | #151930 | ISBN: 9076998590
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £74.00 $94/€87 approx

About this book

This book describes how long-lived sea lavender populations come and go, and how the fungal diseases "rust" and "mildew" may contribute to their going. The temporal and spatial distributions of rust and mildew epidemics are described and the annual cycle and the perennation of the rust (Uromyces limonii) are studied in detail. The unusual but important roles of sea water in the dispersal of the host plant and of its rust are also covered. The main focus of the book is on the facts collected in the salt marshes of the barrier island Terschelling, in the north of the Netherlands.


Contents

Abstract 7; Preface 9; Table of contents 11; List of abbreviations 17; 1. Natural pathosystems 19; 1.1. Homoeostasis 19; 1.2. Background information 19; 1.3. The present report 20; 2. The research area - Boschplaat - Terschelling - The Netherlands 21; 2.1. The "Boschplaat" 21; 2.2. The local climate 23; 2.3. The vegetation 24; 2.4. The research area 26; 2.5. Transect C 26; 3. The host, Limonium vulgare 31; 3.1. The sea lavender 31; 3.2. Genet growth 32; 3.3. Leaf development 34; 3.3.1. Leaf development indoors 34; 3.3.2. Leaf development in the field 36; 3.4. Roots 37; 3.5. Flowering and seed set 37; 3.6. Seed dispersal and plant establishment 39; 3.6.1. Generalities 39; 3.6.2. Plant establishment 40; 3.6.3. Spartina islands 41; 3.6.4. Seedling survival 43; 3.6.5. Vegetation development 45; 3.6.6. Morphological plasticity 49; 3.7. Age structure of sea lavender vegetations 50; 3.7.1. Genet age 50; 3.7.2. A logit line approach 51; 3.7.3. Age distributions of genets and vegetation types 51; 3.7.4. Age distributions within genets 53; 3.7.5. Decline of the sea lavender population 54; 3.8. Diseases, pests and other injurious agents 55; 3.9. Discussion 55. 4. The sea lavender rust, Uromyces limonii 59; 4.1. Uromyces limonii 59; 4.1.1. The species 59; 4.1.2. Pycnia 60; 4.1.3. Aecia 62; 4.1.4. Uredinia 64; 4.1.5. Telia 65; 4.1.6. Spore dispersal 66; 4.2. The effect of plant age 69; 4.3. Genet, isolate and interaction effects 70; 4.4. Half-sib progenies 72; 4.4.1. An unsuccessful experiment; a "growth chamber effect" 72; 4.4.2. A successful experiment 73; 4.4.3. A hybridisation experiment 73; 4.5. Salt and rust infection 75; 4.5.1. Salt and II-spore germination 75; 4.5.2. Effect of salt and rust on seedlings 78; 4.5.3. Plant vigour and rust infection 79; 4.5.4. Salt and host susceptibility 80; 4.6. Epidemics in the field 84; 4.6.1. Experiment 84; 4.6.2. Results per pustule type 85; 4.6.3. Results per leaf layer 88; 4.6.4. Summarised results of four genets 93; 4.6.5. The upsurges of the rust 93; 4.6.6. Summary of field experiments 96; 4.7. Discussion 96; 5. The sea lavender mildew, Erysiphe limonii 101; 5.1. The mildew 101; 5.2. Conidiospores 103; 5.2.1. Conidiospore germination 103; 5.2.2. Latent period 107; 5.2.3. Salt tolerance of mildew conidia 109; 5.2.4. Types of resistance 110; 5.3. Cleistothecia 112; 5.3.1. Development of cleistothecia 112; 5.3.2. Asci 113; 5.3.3. Ascospores 114; 5.3.4. Overwintering of cleistothecia and ascospores 115; 5.3.5. How to open cleistothecia? 118; 5.4. Indoor experiments 119; 5.4.1. The Leaf Fragment Method 119; 5.4.2. Leaf age and mildew susceptibility 121; 5.4.3. Between-ramet variation within-genets 121; 5.4.4. Variation in resistance of a seedling population 123. 5.5. Half-sib tests 126; 5.5.1. A leaf fragment test 126; 5.5.2. An intact plant test 127; 5.5.3. A hybridisation experiment 129; 5.6. Field epidemics 131; 5.7. Discussion 132; 6. Surveys 135; 6.1. The 1972 reconnaissance 135; 6.1.1. The 1972 Transect 135; 6.1.2. Detailed observations 137; 6.2. The 1973 reconnaissance 138; 6.2.1. General results 138; 6.2.2. Specific results 140; 6.2.3. The "contrast method" 141; 6.2.4. Combined occurrence of rust and mildew 141; 6.3. The 1979 Inventory 141; 6.3.1. Design of inventory and tests 141; 6.3.2. Vegetation types within disease classes 142; 6.3.3. Disease classes ranked per vegetation type 143; 6.3.4. The area-wide PL sample survey 145; 6.4. Transect C, 1978 + 1979 146; 6.4.1. Description of Transect C 146; 6.4.2. Results - aggregated data - distance effects 147; 6.4.3. Results - aggregated data - year effects 150; 6.4.4. Results - disaggregated data 156; 6.4.5. Autocorrelation and structure in Transect C 160; 6.4.6. The "mildew belt" 161; 6.4.7. Persistence of sea lavender pathogens at genet level 162; 6.5. Discussion 165; 7. Damage 167; 7.1. Damage, a key issue 167; 7.1.1. Injury, damage, loss 167; 7.1.2. Homoeostasis? 167; 7.1.3. The obvious 168; 7.1.4. The odd observations 169; 7.2. Mutilation experiments 170; 7.2.1. The 1978 experiment using octants within one genet 170; 7.2.2. Two 1979 mutilation experiments 172; 7.2.3. The 1980 experiment using 16 genets 172; 7.3. Field studies 175; 7.3.1. Impairment of genet growth by mildew, 1980 175; 7.3.2. Damage by low-level disease 176; 7.3.3. Impairment of foliar development by mildew, 1980 177; 7.3.4. Impairment of leaf and inflorescence formation by rust, 1978 179. 7.3.5. Impairment of flowering by rust, 1979 180; 7.4. Disease and succession 180; 7.5. Damage to seedlings 181; 7.6. Discussion 182; 8. Differential interaction in the sea lavender - rust pathosystem 185; 8.1. Differential interaction and physiologic specialisation 185; 8.2. Materials and methods 186; 8.3. Results 186; 8.4. Reciprocal checks 192; 8.5. Discussion 193; 9. General discussion 197; 9.1. Methodoly 197; 9.1.1. Technical aspects 197; 9.1.2. Statistics 199; 9.1.3. Reporting 199; 9.2. The multiple pathosystem 200; 9.2.1. Concepts 200; 9.2.2. The host 201; 9.2.3. The mildew 202; 9.2.4. The rust 202; 9.2.5. Perennation 203; 9.2.6. Speciation 204; 9.3. Disease and succession 204; 9.4. Robinson's proposal for an ESS 205; 9.5. Homoeostasis and ESS 206; 9.6. A metapathosystem 209; References 211; Appendix 1. Participants 217; Appendix 2. Inflorescence formation of 19 genets over three years, 1976-1978 218; Appendix 3. Scale to assess flowering stages of sea lavender 219; Appendix 4. Seed production in Transect C, 1978 220; Appendix 5. Data on age distributions within and between genets 222; Appendix 6. The agar disk method for inoculation with rust 224; Materials and methods 224; Results 226; Discussion 227. Appendix 7. Urediniospore germination experiments 228; Appendix 8. Effect of salt and rust on seedlings 230; Appendix 9. Table for mildew scoring 234; Appendix 10. The 1972 Transect 235; Appendix 11. The 1973 Survey. Leaves per ramet, healthy, rusted, mildewed or both rusted and mildewed 236; Appendix 12. Persistence of pathogens in Transect A 238; Appendix 13. Vegetation classes (VCs) in Transect C 240; Appendix 14. Mildew damage. Contrast method, PL around Transect C, 1980 242; Appendix 15. 1979 data on rusted and (nearly) healthy genets in PL 244; Appendix 16. Consultant's Report on EPINAT, 1979 245; Contents 245; 1. The Consultancy 245; 2. The Global Context 245; 3. The Pathosystem Concept 246; 4. The Artifacts of Agriculture 247; 5. The Concept of the ESS 247; 6. Evolution of the Vertical subsystem 248; 7. The ESS of the Vertical Subsystem 248; 8. Model of the Limonium Mildew Pathosystem 250; 9. The concept of syergetics 251; 10. Suggestions for future research 252; 11. Recommendations 253.

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