This book gives a comprehensive and detailed discussion of statistical averaging of meteorological fields, with assessments of associated errors. A great deal of work on the subject, conducted in the former Soviet Union by the author, is available in English for the first time with this translation. Particularly important is the method of optimal averaging which is developed and examined. This work should be useful to those conducting climate monitoring or climate change studies, which often require spatial averaging to detect slight changes. Studies conducted by the author allow increased accuracy of these estimates compared to many methods commonly used, while showing the confidence that may be assigned to the estimates.
1: Introduction. 1.1. Spatial and Temporal Averaging in Meteorological Problems. 1.2. Some Information on the Statistical Characteristics of Meteorological Fields. 2: Statistical Description of Averaged Fields. 2.1. Statistical Structure of Averaged Data. 2.2. Representativeness of Point Measurements with respect to Averaged Values. 2.3. Influence of Area Shape on the Representativeness of a Point Value. 3: The Accuracy of Averaging Discrete Data. 3.1. The Accuracy of Representing Average Quantities by Discrete Data. 3.2. Approximate Evaluation of the Averaging Accuracy. 3.3. Optimal Averaging of Discrete Data. 3.4. Accuracy of Averaging the Characteristics of Statistical Structure. 4: Problems of Averaging Some Meteorological Fields. 4.1. The Representativeness of Precipitation Data. 4.2. Accuracy of Zonal Averaging of Air Temperature. 5: Practical Aspects of the Spatial Averaging of Meteorological Fields. 5.1. Methods of Averaging Meteoroglogical Fields and Numerical Applications. 5.2. A Brief Description of the Averaging Algorithms. 5.3. Comparative Accuracy of Some Averaging Algorithms.
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