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The Subseafloor Biosphere at Mid-Ocean Ridges


Series: Geophysical Monograph Series Volume: 144

By: William SD Wilcock (Editor), Edward F DeLong (Editor), Deborah S Kelley (Editor), John A Baross (Editor), S Craig Cary (Editor)

407 pages, illustrations

American Geophysical Union

Hardback | Dec 2004 | #159267 | ISBN: 0875904092
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £57.50 $70/€64 approx

About this book

Awareness has grown over the past several years that the subseafloor may harbor a substantial biosphere sustained by volcanic heat and chemical fluxes from the Earth's interior. This realization has profound scientific implications for questions concerning the origins of life, the true extent of Earth's biosphere, and the search for life on other planets. At mid-ocean spreading centers, the fluxes that sustain life are the highest, and the hydrothermal fluids in which micro-organisms grow are readily accessible on the seafloor. In addition, periodic volcanic eruptions flush fluids and microbes from the subsurface, and volcanic gases are believed to drive spectacular microbial blooms. Although ridges are challenging locations in which to work, they are unique in the oceans because of the diversity and dynamic nature of their subsurface environments.


The Subsurface Biosphere at Mid-Ocean Ridges: Issues and Challenges
      John A. Baross, William S. D. Wilcock, Deborah S. Kelley, Edward F. DeLong, 5. Craig Cary 1

Physical Limits to Subsurface Life
The Upper Temperature Limit for Life Based on Hyperthermophile Culture Experiments and Field Observations
      James F. Holden and Roy M. Daniel 13
The Stability of Biomolecules and the Implications for Life at High Temperatures
      Roy M. Daniel, James F. Holden, Jolanda Truter, Don A. Cowan, and Renate van Eckert 25
On the Edge of a Deep Biosphere: Real Animals in Extreme Environments
      James J. Childress, Charles R. Fisher, Horst Felbeck, and Peter Girguis 41

The Subseafloor Environment at Mid-Ocean Ridges
Geophysical Constraints on the Subseafloor Environment Near Mid-Ocean Ridges
      William S. D. Wilcock and Andrew T. Fisher 51
Diking, Event Plumes, and the Subsurface Biosphere at Mid-Ocean Ridge
      Robert W. Embley and John E. Lupton 75
Fluid Flow and Fluid-Rock Interaction Within Ocean Crust: Reconciling Geochemical, Geological, and Geophysical Observations
      Wolfgang Bach, Susan E. Humphris, and Andrew T. Fisher 99
Serpentinization of Oceanic Peridotites: Implications for Geochemical Cycles and Biological Activity
      Gretchen L Fruh-Green, James A. D. Connolly Alessio Plas, Deborah S. Kelley, and Bernard Grobety 119
Environmental Conditions Within Active Seafloor Vent Structures: Sensitivity to Vent Fluid Composition and Fluid Flow
      Margaret Kingston Tivey 137

Energy Sources and Physiological Diversity
Geochemical Energy Sources That Support the Subsurface Biosphere
      Everett L. Shock and Melanie E. Holland 153
Volatiles in Submarine Environments: Food for Life
      Deborah S. Kelley Marvin D. Li I ley, and Gretchen L. Fruh-Green 167
Activation of Diatomic and Triatomic Molecules for the Synthesis of Organic Compounds: Metal Catalysis at the Subseafloor Biosphere
      George W. Luther, III 191
Potential Importance of Dissimilatory Fe(lll)-Reducing Microorganisms in Hot Sedimentary Environments
      Kazem Kashefi, Dawn. E. Holmes, Derek R. Lovley, and Jason M. Tor 199
Significance of Polysaccharides in Microbial Physiology and the Ecology of Hydrothermal Vent Environments
      Marybeth A. Pysz, Clemente I. Montero, Swapnil R. Chhabra, Robert M. Kelly and Kristina D. Rinker 213

Environmental Dynamics and Variability
Detection of and Response to Mid-Ocean Ridge Magmatic Events: Implications for the Subsurface Biosphere
      James P. Cowen, Edward T. Baker, and Robert W. Embley 227
Diffuse Flow Hydrothermal Fluids From 9°50'N East Pacific Rise: Origin, Evolution and Biogeochemical Controls
      Karen L. Von Damm and Marvin D. Lilley 245
Mixing, Reaction and Microbial Activity in the Sub-seafloor Revealed by Temporal and Spatial Variation in Diffuse Flow Vents at Axial Volcano
      David A. Butterfield, Kevin K. Roe, Marvin D. Lilley Julie A. Huber, John A. Baross, Robert W. Embley and Gary J. Massoth 269
Illuminating Subseafloor Ecosystems Using Microbial Tracers
      Melanie E. Holland, John A. Baross, and James F. Holden 291
Sedimented Ridges as a Laboratory for Exploring the Subsurface Biosphere
      Robert A. Zierenberg and Melanie E. Holland 305

Global Distribution and Comparisons
The Ocean Crust as a Bioreactor
      Hubert Staudigel, Bradley Tebo, Art Yayanos, Harald Furnes, Katie Kelley, Terry Plank, and Karlis Muehlenbachs 325
Diversity of Life at the Geothermal Subsurface-Surface Interface: The Yellowstone Example
      John R. Spear and Norman R. Pace 343
Unifying Principles of the Deep Terrestrial and Deep Marine Biospheres
      Frederick S. Colwell and Richard P. Smith 355
Distriution of Unusual Archaea in Subsurface Biosphere
      Ken Takai, Fumio Inagaki, and Koki Horikoshi 369

Future Directions
Studying the Deep Subsurface Biosphere: Emerging Technologies and Applications
      S. Craig Cary, Barbara J. Campbell, and Edward F DeLong 383

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