All Mesozoic Aeshnoptera are revised and their phylogenetic relationships are reconstructed. The type species of the genus Mesuropetala is redescribed, and Mesuropetala muensteri (GERMAR, 1839) comb. nov. is considered as its valid name instead of Mesuropetala koehleri (HAGEN, 1848). Mesuropetala magna sp. nov. is described from the Lower Cretaceous of Russia. "Aeschna" antiqua VAN DER LINDEN, 1827 and "Aeschna" schmiedeli GIEBEL, 1856 could be synonyms of Mesuropetala muensteri or Protolindenia wittei, and thus are here considered as nomina dubia in Anisoptera incertae sedis. Cymatophlebiopsis pseudobubas HANDLIRSCH, 1939 is regarded as junior subjective synonym of Aeschnopsis perampla (BRODIE, 1945), and the genus Aeschnopsis HANDLIRSCH, 1939 stat. restor. is transferred to Mesuropetalidae. Necrogomphus jurassicus (GIEBEL, 1856) from the Lower Cretaceous of England is attributed to the genus Aeschnopsis. Furthermore, two new species, Aeschnopsis perkinsi sp. nov. and A. tischlingeri sp. nov. are described from the Upper Jurassic of Germany.
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