Introduction: Beyond the synapse R. Douglas Fields; Part I. Spanning Scales of Neural Plasticity: 1. Memory beyond the synapse Steven P. R. Rose; 2. Between synapses and behavior: functional circuitry of the hippocampus Howard Eichenbaum; 3. Widening the lens: Looking beyond the synapse for experience-driven brain plasticity Julie A. Markham, Aaron W. Grossman, and William T. Greenough; 4. Activity-dependent myelination R. Douglas Fields; 5. Bipolar disorder: involvement of signaling cascades and AMPA receptor trafficking at synapses Jing Du, Jorge Quiroz, Peixiong Yuan, Carlos Zarate Jr., and Husseini K. Manji; Part II. Novelty, Stress, and Hormones in Plasticity: 6. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and reconsolidation Matthew P. Walker and Robert Stickgold; 7. Consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning: roles for intracellular signaling and extracellular modulation in memory storage Christopher Cain, Jacek Debiec, and Joseph LeDoux; 8. Emotional and cognitive reinforcement of rat hippocampal long-term potentiation requires different neuromodulatory systems Volker Korz and Julietta U. Frey; 9. Estrogen and hippocampal synaptic plasticity Micael Foy, Michael Baudry and Richard Thompson; 10. Steroid-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity: sex differences and similarities Russell D. Romeo, Elizabeth M. Waters, and Bruce S. McEwen; Part III. Cell-cell Signaling Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity: 11. MHC class I in activity-dependent structural and functional plasticity Lisa M. Boulanger; 12. Cytokine induction of neuronal receptor trafficking: relevance to synaptic function and excitotoxicity Dmitri Leonoudakis Steven P. Braithwaite, Michael S. Beattie and Eric C. Beattie; 13. Neurotrophin signaling among neurons and glia during formation of synapses Sarina B. Elmariah, Ethan G. Hughes, Eun Joo Oh, and Rita J. Balice-Gordon; 14. Regulation of neurogenesis by neurotrophins: implications in hippocampus-dependent memory Bai Lu and Jay H. Chang; 15. Focal adhesion-like processes underly induction of long-term potentiation in the Schaffer-collateral-CA1 region of hippocampus Richard G. LeBaron, Ruben V. Hernandez, Mary M. Navarro, James E. Orfila, Lisa R. Curry and Joe L. Martinez; 16. Signaling to the nucleus in long-term memory Olena Bukalo and R. Douglas Fields; Part IV. Non-traditional Transmitters and Glia: 17. Diffusible hydrogen peroxide generated post-synaptically inhibits axonal dopamine release in striatum Marat V. Avshalumov, Jyoti Patel, Li Bao, Duncan G. MacGregor, and Margaret E. Rice; 18. D-serine as a novel glial neurotransmitter Asif K. Mustafa, Paul M. Kim, and Solomon H. Snyder; 19. Conversations between glia and neurons in the retina: modulation of neuronal excitability Eric A. Newman; 20. Metabotropic glutamate receptors as a target for astrocytic control of inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampus Wing-song Liu, Qiwu Xu, Jian Kang, and Maiken Nedergaard.