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Boreal Forest and Climate Change

Series: Advances in Global Change Research Volume: 34

Edited By: Pertti Hari and Liisa Kulmala

Springer-Verlag

Hardback | Sep 2008 | #177684 | ISBN-13: 9781402087172
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £245.00 $309/€290 approx

About this book

An active co-operation between forest ecologists and physicist has continued for decades at the University of Helsinki. These scientists have the common vision that material and energy fluxes are the key to a proper understanding of natural phenomena. The authors of this book come from very different disciplines: tree ecophysiology, silviculture, aerosol physics, meteorology, soil science, microbiology, botany and applied electronics. However, the shared vision has resulted in coherent research which crosses the disciplinary bounders and has produced an integrated programme covering a range of temporal and spatial scales.

The measurements at two long-term stations SMEAR I and II have been designed to study material and energy fluxes over forests at two geophysical locations.The result is a unique data set, providing insights into the climatological control of the carbon cycle in coniferous forests of northern Europe. The analysis starts from the space and time element level and is extended via ecosystems to boreal forests. The predictive power of the several theories proposed is high.

There are several crucial feedbacks from forests to the climate system.The mechanisms for those feedbacks are elaborated in the book: they involve changes in the carbon cycle, albedo, N2O emissions and the production of aerosols. Much of this work is new and the feedback relationships have not yet incorporated in models of the climate system. The book will be an important introduction for students and climate modellers alike, providing conceptual tools and ideas that are broadly applicable to terrestrial systems.

From the reviews: "Boreal forest and climate change is a much-needed addition to the literature on the subject. ! the book provides detailed, nicely illustrated insights into both conceptual and mechanistic process models describing aspects of these theories and associated processes, their interactions, and scale dependence. ! the book is most appropriate as a high-level scientific treatise for those with a keen interest in the biophysical aspects of measuring and modeling ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. ! this book is a veritable treasure trove of information on the subject." (Scott Goetz, Ecology, Vol. 80 (7), 2009)


Contents

List of Contributing Authors 1 INTRODUCTION.- 1.1 Background.- 1.2 Theoretical tools.- 1.3 The aim of the book 2 METHODOLOGIES.- 2.1 Background.- 2.2 Dynamic modelling.- 2.3 Statistical methods.- 2.4 On Field Measurements.- 2.5 SMEAR network.- 3 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.- 3.1 Annual cycle of environmental factors.- 3.2 Temporal and spatial variation: atmosphere.- 3.3 Temporal and spatial variation: soil.- 4 TRANSPORT.- 4.1 Molecular transport.- 4.2 Convection.- 4.3 Radiative transport.- 4.4 Summary of transport phenomena.- 5 STRUCTURE.- 5.1 Hierarchy of structure.- 5.2 Vegetation.- 5.3 Structure of the atmosphere.- 5.4 Soil.- 6 PROCESSES.- 6.1 Temporal and spatial scale of processes and fluxes.- 6.2 Physical and chemical processes.- 6.3 Vegetation processes.- 6.4 Soil processes.- 7 FROM PROCESSES AND TRANSPORT TO TREES, ECOSYSTEMS AND ATMOSPHERE.- 7.1 Mathematical tools.- 7.2 Atmospheric Processes and Transport.- 7.3 Environmental factors in the canopy.- 7.4 Environmental factors in soil.- 7.5 Tree level.- 7.6 Stand level.- 7.8 Aerosol particles in the air.- 7.9 Annual energy, carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and amounts at SMEAR II.- 8 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PROCESSES, TRANSPORT AND STRUCTURE.- 9 MICROFOREST.- 9.1 Growth and development of forest ecosystems; The MicroForest Model.- 9.2 Testing MicroForest.- 10 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BOREAL FORESTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE.- 10.1 Climate change.- 10.2 Climate Change and Boreal Forests.- 10.3 Feedback from boreal forests to climate change.- 10.4 Evaluation of the connections between boreal forests and climate change.- 11 CONCLUDING REMARKS.- REFERENCES, INDEX

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