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Waste Input-Output Analysis: Concepts and Application to Industrial Ecology

Series: Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science Volume: 26

By: Shinichiro Nakamura and Yasushi Kondo


Hardback | Dec 2009 | #179723 | ISBN-13: 9781402099014
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £96.99 $118/€108 approx

About this book

The increasing use of input-output analysis (IOA) in Industrial Ecology (IE) for life-cycle assessment (LCA), material flow analysis (MFA), and life-cycle costing (LCC) calls for a self-contained publication on IOA that can meet the needs of practitioners without compromising on basic concepts and latest developments. "Waste Input-Output Analysis" addresses these needs.

The standard IOA has the weakness that it does not consider the physical flows of waste and the activity of waste management. To cope with this problem, the authors have developed the Waste Input-Output model (WIO) which addresses these issues explicitly.

The major aim of this book is to make WIO accessible to the students and practitioners of IE. "Waste Input-Output Analysis" is unique in its coverage of both the basics of IOA and its application to IE with special emphasis on issues of waste management. No pre-knowledge is required on IOA.


1. Introduction.- 1.1 The Aim of the Book.- 1.2 Outline of the Book's Content.- 1.3 Putting IOA in Practice by Excel.- References.- Part I: Input-Output Analysis.- 2. Basics of Input-Output Analysis.- 2.1 The One-sector Model.- 2.1.1 Input and Output in a Productive Economy.- 2.1.2 The Leontief Quantity Model.- 2.1.3 Production, Income, and Consumption: The Input-Output Table.- 2.1.4 Cost And Price: The Price Model.- 2.2 The Two-sector Model.- 2.2.1 Production Processes.- 2.2.2 The Leontief Quantity Model.- 2.2.3 The Price Model.- 2.2.4 The IO Table.- 2.3 The N Sectors Model.- 2.3.1 Matrix Notations.- 2.3.2 Inversion of a Matrix and the Quantity Model.- 2.3.3 Exogenous Inputs and Waste Generation.- 2.3.4 Cost and Price.- 2.3.5 Structural Decomposition Analysis.- 2.3.6 IOA for the Case of N = 2.- 2.4 Exercise with Excel.- 2.4.1 Basic Analysis.- 2.4.2 Consolidating of Sectors.- References.-3. Extensions of IOA.- 3.1 Regional Extensions.- 3.1.1 A Two-region Open Model.- 3.1.2 A Two-region Closed Model.- 3.1.3 A Three-region Model: An Open Model.- 3.1.4 International IO Tables.- 3.2 By-product.- 3.2.1 Defining By-product And Waste.- 3.2.2 The Leontief Quantity Model With By-product.- 3.2.3 A Numerical Example.- 3.2.4 Implications for Positivity Conditions.- 3.3 The Model Based on Use and Make Matrices.- 3.3.1 U and V Matrices, and Related Identities.- 3.3.2 Industry-based Technology.- 3.3.3 Commodity-based Technology.- 3.4 Extension Towards a Closed Model.- 3.4.1 Integrating Consumption.- 3.4.2 The Dynamic Model: Closing The IO Model with Regard to Capital Formation.- 3.4.3 A Fully Closed Model.- 3.5 Extension to the System with Inequalities.- 3.5.1 Limited Supply of Exogenous Inputs.- 3.5.2 Issues of Substitution: Programming Model.- 3.6 The "Supply-side Input-output" Model of Ghosh.- 3.7 The Fundamental Structure of Production.- 3.7.1 Identifying the Fundamental Structure of Production.- 3.7.2 Application to the Japanese IO Table.- 3.8 Exercise with Excel.- 3.8.1 Accounting for Competitive Imports.- 3.8.2 The Upper Bounds of Final Demand When the Supply of Exogenous Inputs is Limited.- 3.8.3 The Choice of Technology.- References.-4. Microeconomic Foundations.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Representation of Technology.- 4.2.1 Technology and Production Function.- 4.2.2 Cost and Input Demand Functions.- 4.2.3 Duality Between Cost and Production Functions.- 4.3 Specification of Technology.- 4.3.1 Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches.- 4.3.2 The Elasticity of Substitution Between Inputs.- 4.3.3 CES Functions.- 4.3.4 Flexible Functional Forms.- 4.3.5 Tree Structure of Technology: Separability.- 4.4 Technology in the Leontief IO Model.- 4.4.1 Characteristics of Technology in IOA.- 4.4.2 Substitution Theorems.- 4.4.3 Supply and Demand Curves in IOA.- 4.4.4 IOA: Bottom-Up or Top-Down?- References.- Part II: Waste Input-Output Analysis.-5. Basics of WIO.- 5.1 Environmental IO (EIO).- 5.1.1 Linking the Economy and the Environment in IOA.- 5.1.2 Energy Analysis.- 5.1.3 Emission IO Model.- 5.2 The IO Models of Pollution Abatement and Their Relevance to Waste Management.- 5.2.1 The Leontief Model Of Pollution Abatement.- 5.2.2 Further Extensions of the Leontief EIO Model.- 5.2.3 IO Tables with Waste and Waste Management.- 5.3 Waste IO: Concepts and Modeling.- 5.3.1 The Leontief-Duchin EIO and the Dutch NAMEA.- 5.3.2 The Waste IO.- References.-6. WIO Analysis.- 6.1 WIO Tables and Analysis: Empirical Examples.- 6.1.1 WIO for a City in Hokkaido, Japan.- 6.1.2 WIO Tables for Japan.- 6.2 The Dynamic Nature of Waste Treatment Processes.- 6.2.1 A System Engineering Representation of the Incineration Process.- 6.2.2 Implications for WIO.- 6.2.3 Effects of Changing the Allocation Pattern of Waste to Treatment Processes.- 6.3 The WIO Cost/Price Model.- 6.3.1 The WIO Price Model with Waste Treatment.- 6.3.2 The WIO Price Model with Waste Treatment and Recycling.- 6.3.3 Numerical Example.- References.-7. Application of WIO to Industrial Ecology.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The Full Life Cycle WIO Model: Closing the Loop of the Product Life Cycle.- 7.2.1 The Use (and Discard) Process.- 7.2.2 Incorporating the Use (and Discard) Phase.- 7.2.3 LCC: The Cost and Price Model.- 7.2.4 Numerical Examples.- 7.2.5 Applications to LCA And LCC.- 7.3 Application of WIO to MFA.- 7.3.1 Two Major Methods of MFA.- 7.3.2 WIO-MFA: Methodology.- 7.3.3 Application of WIO-MFA to Metals.- 7.4 Regional WIO Models.- 7.4.1 Interregional WIO Model.- 7.4.2 Regional WIO Table for Tokyo.- 7.5 The Choice of Technology: WIO-LP.- 7.5.1 Waste Input-Output Linear Programming Model.- 7.5.2 Making Allocation Matrices Variable.- 7.5.3 Application to the Case Involving Alternative Waste Recycling and Treatment Technologies.- 7.6 Other Applications of WIO.- References.- Index.

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