Part I. Introduction. 1 Introduction (Robin Allen, James Joseph, Dale Squires, and Elizabeth Stryjewski). 2 Addressing the Problem of Excess Fishing Capacity in Tuna Fisheries (James Joseph, Dale Squires, William Bayliff, and Theodore Groves). 3 Property and Use Rights in Fisheries (Dale Squires). 4 Rights-Based Management in Transnational Tuna Fisheries (Robin Allen, William Bayliff, James Joseph, and Dale Squires). 5 The Benefits and Costs of Transformation of Open Access on the High Seas (Robin Allen, William Bayliff, James Joseph, and Dale Squires). Part II. Rights-Based Management, 6 International Fisheries Law and the Transferability of Quota: Principles and Precedents (Andrew Serdy). 7 Can Rights Put It Right? Industry Initiatives to Resolve Overcapacity Issues: Observations from a Boat Deck and a Manager's Desk (Daryl Sykes). 8 Rights-Based Management of Tuna Fisheries: Lessons from the Assignment of Property Rights on the Western US Frontier (Gary Libecap). 9 The Economics of Allocation in Tuna Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs) (R. Quentin Grafton, Rognvaldur Hannesson, Bruce Shallard, Daryl Sykes, and Joseph Terry). 10 Allocating Fish across Jurisdictions (Jon Van Dyke). 11 Buybacks in Transnational Fisheries (Dale Squires, James Joseph, and Theodore Groves). 12 Limited Access in Transnational Tuna Fisheries (Brian Hallman, Scott Barrett, Raymond Clarke, James Joseph, and Dale Squires). Part III. Bycatch. 13 Individual Transferable Quotas for Bycatches: Lessons for the Tuna-Dolphin Issue (Rognvaldur Hannesson). 14 Incentives to Address Bycatch Issues (Heidi Gjertsen, Martin Hall, and Dale Squires). Part IV. Politics, Enforcement, and Compliance. 15 Politics for Use Rights in Tuna RFMOs (Frank Alcock). 16 Flags of Convenience and Property Rights on the High Seas (Elizabeth DeSombre). 17 Japanese Policies, Ocean Law, and the Tuna Fisheries: Sustainability Goals, the IUU Issue, and Overcapacity (Katherine J. Mengerink, Harry N. Scheiber, and Yann-Huie Song). 18 Quasi-Property Rights and the Effectiveness of Atlantic Tuna Management (D. G. Webster).