1. General Introduction; G. W Heil, R. Aerts. 2. Atmospheric Deposition of Sulphur and Nitrogen in Heathland Ecosystems; P. Bobbink, G. W Heil. 3. Biomass and Nutrient Dynamics of Dominant Plant Species from Heathlands; R. Aerts. 4. The Effect of External Stress and Disturbance Factors on Calluno-Dominated Heathiand Vegetation; J. J. M. Berdowski. 5. Competition between Dominant Plant Species in heathlands; R. Aerts. 6. Seed Bank, Germination, and Establishment of Ericaceous and Gramineous Species in Heathlands; M. Bruggink. 7 Impact of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Dry Heathlands: A Stochastic Model Simulating Competition between Callona vulgaris and Two Grass Species; G. W Heil, R. Bobbink. 8. Synthesis: Perspectives for heathlands; G. W Heil, R. Aerts.