Part I. Introduction: 1. Integrating ecology and systematics in climate change research T. R. Hodkinson; 2. Climate modelling and deep time climate change R. Caballero and P. Lynch; 3. The perils of addressing long term challenges in a short term world: making descriptive taxonomy predictive R. M. Bateman; Part II. Adaptation, Speciation and Extinction: 4. Global climate and extinction: evidence from the fossil record P. J. Mayhew; 5. Long term fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 concentration influence plant speciation rate J. C. McElwain, K. K. Willis and K. J. Niklas; 6. Wood anatomy and climate change P. Baas and E. A. Wheeler; 7. Savanna biome evolution, climate change and the ecological expansion of C4 grasses Y. Bouchenak-Khelladi and T. R. Hodkinson; 8. Climate warming results in phenotypic and evolutionary changes in spring events: a mini review A. Donnelly, A. Caffarra, E. Diskin, C. T. Kelleher, A. Pletsers, H. Proctor, R. Stirnemann, M. B. Jones, J. O'Halloran, B. F. O'Neill, J. Penuelas and T. Sparks; 9. Terrestrial green algae: systematics, biogeography and expected responses to climate change F. Rindi; Part III. Biogeography, Migration and Ecological Niche Modelling: 10. Biodiversity informatics for climate change studies A. Culham and C. Yesson; 11. Climate envelope models in systematics and evolutionary research: theory and practice D. Rodder, S. Schmidtlein, S. Schick and S. Lotters; 12. Biogeography of cyclamen: an application of phyloclimatic modelling C. Yesson and A. Culham; 13. Cenozoic climate changes and the demise of Tethyan laurel forests: lessons for the future from an integrative reconstruction of the past F. Rodriguez-Sanchez and J. Arroyo; 14. The impact of climate change on the origin and future of East African rain forest trees L. W. Chatrou, J. J. Wieringa and T. L. P. Couvreur; 15. Hybridisation, introgression and climate change: a case study for the tree genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae) M. Thomasset, J. F. Fernandez-Manjarres, G. C. Douglas, N. Frascaria-Lacoste and T. R. Hodkinson; Part IV. Conservation: 16. Assessing the effectiveness of a protected area network in the face of climatic change B. Huntley, D. G. Hole and S. G. Willis; 17. Documenting plant species in a changing climate: a case study from Arabia M. Hall and A. G. Miller; 18. A critical appraisal of the meaning and diagnosability of cryptic evolutionary diversity, and its implications for conservation in the face of climate change J. Bernardo; 19. Climate change and Cyperaceae D. A. Simpson, C. Yesson, A. Culham, C. A. Couch and A. M. Muasya; 20. An interdisciplinary review of climate change trends and uncertainties: lichen biodiversity, arctic alpine ecosystems and habitat loss C. J. Ellis and R. Yahr; 21. Climate change and oceanic mountain vegetation: a case study of the montane heath and associated plant communities in western Irish mountains R. L. Hodd and M. J. Sheehy Skeffington.