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The Orchids of Mount Kinabalu (2-Volume Set)

Flora / FaunaIdentification Key

By: Jeffrey J Wood (Author), Teofila E Beaman (Author), Anthony Lamb (Author), Datuk Chan Chew Lun (Author), John H Beaman (Author)

1184 pages, 36 plates with 324 colour photos; 985 colour photos and b/w drawings

Natural History Publications Borneo

Hardback | Slipcase | Jan 2011 | #189548 | ISBN-13: 9789838121323
Availability: In stock
NHBS Price: £221.00 $278/€263 approx

About this book

This two-volume work provides a detailed account of the orchid flora of Mount Kinabalu situated in the Malaysian state of Sabah (formerly British North Borneo) which, at 4095 m, is the highest peak between the Himalayas and Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). Kinabalu was declared Malaysia's first World Heritage Site by UNESCO in November 2000. The Kinabalu massif, encompassing only about 1250 square km, is smaller than most English counties, yet the authors list an astonishing number of orchids for such a small area. Nearly 38% of the orchid species are known from just one locality and about 16% have been collected only once. The Kinabalu vascular plant flora may include as many as 5000–6000 species, and is one of the most diverse, if not the most diverse floras in the world. Additionally, Mount Kinabalu has been a centre of extremely active plant evolution and speciation and presents a spectacular natural laboratory for studying these processes. Bearing in mind that much of the mountain, especially the remote and inaccessible northern side, is still poorly explored, one can get some idea of its biological richness.

Mount Kinabalu is mostly composed of granite together with distinctive areas of ultramafic substrate. Together with its ultramafic satellite, Mount Tembuyuken, it forms the major part of a much visited national park and has been described by co-author John Beaman as holding one of the richest assemblages of plants in the world. Its forests also support a fascinating array of creatures such as the Kinabalu Ferret Badger and the Banded Linsang. Its slopes are home to a 30 cm long giant orange terrestrial leech which feeds on giant blue earthworms. The bird fauna is equally prolific and includes many intriguingly named species including the Bornean Whistling Thrush, Chestnut-crested Yuhina, Friendly Bush-warbler and Whitehead's Spiderhunter. An integrated system of computer programs used for data editing and printing an enumeration of the orchid flora of Mount Kinabalu was written in the dBASE IV programming language by Reed Beaman. A data management program, KINABALU, allows for accessing any aspect of the database through a menu system. Seven principal relational data tables are used in the production of the enumeration of taxa. Two of these tables contain data on specimens including types. Taxonomic, nomenclatural, geographical, and bibliographic information is linked from other tables. Various procedures permit creating and editing the tables. Menus facilitate inputting and editing specimen and taxon data, globally replacing various expressions such as changing an author's name or abbreviation, indexing and querying the database, computing a summary of elevation ranges for taxa, numbering taxa, making an index to numbered collections, and printing enumerations of all taxa in the database or selected genera.

The data gathered grew from a proposed simple checklist into a 411-page book, authored by Jeffrey Wood together with Reed and John Beaman, detailing the diverse orchid flora, which was published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in 1993. This precursor to the present two-volume work formed volume two of John Beaman's five-volume inventory of the entire vascular plant flora entitled The Plants of Mount Kinabalu. The final volume covering dicotyledon families from Magnoliaceae to Winteraceae, authored by John Beaman and Christiane Anderson, was published in 2004.


Contents

Volume 1

Table of Contents
Dedication v
Message xi
Foreword xii
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xiv

Introduction 1
Conservation 2
Historical considerations 4
New generic records and new taxa 5
New combinations 5
Future research 6
Methods 6
Vegetation 8
Collections 10
C. E. Carr and his 1933 expedition to Mount Kinabalu 12
Life on the mountain 15
Carr’s orchid collections 17
Consideration of the Clemenses’ orchid collections 17
John Kidman Cox 23
Projek Etnobotani Kinabalu Collections 23
Collectors 25
Distribution 28
Distribution on Mount Kinabalu 31
Orographical and climatic correlations 33
Ecology 33
Orchids of the lowlands 33
Orchids of hill forest (600-1200 m) 35
Orchids of lower montane forest (1400-2200 m) 44
Dendroblum spectatissimum 48
Dendrobium sinsuronense 50
Orchids along the Summit Trail – Lower Montane Forest and Upper Montane Forest (1200-2800 m) 52
Orchids of high elevations – Upper Montane Forest (2200-3000 m) and subalpine vegetation (3000-3400 m) 55
Origins of high-elevation taxa on Mount Kinabalu 58
Evidence for migration via vertical radiation 58
Horizontal high-elevation vicariant radiation 59
Some high-elevation taxa 59
Dendrobium 59
Epigeneium 61
Epigeneium kinabaluense 61
Epigeneium longirepens 63
Epigeneium tricallosum 63
Platanthera 65
Orchids of the Summit Area 66
Ascidieria grandis 66
Bulhophyllum coriaceum 68
Coelogyne papillosa 70
Dendrochilum stachyodes 72
Orchids of ultramafic substrates 74
Appendicula tembuyukenensis 79
Arachnis longisepala 79
Bulbophyllum nubinatum 83
Cymbidium elongatum 83
Renanthera bella 86
Orchids of disturbed habitats 89
Arundina graminifolia 89
Spathoglottis microchilina 91
Life-forms 93
Terrestrials and lithophytes 93
Acanthephippium 93
Acanthephippium lilacinum 94
Anoectochilus 96
Anoectochilus geniculatus 96
Anoectochilus integrilabris 97
Anoectochilus monicae 97
Calanthe 99
Calanthe gibbsiae 99
Calanthe kinabaluensis 99
Calanthe musa-amanii 101
Calanthe otuhanica 101
Calanthe ovalifolia 104
Calanthe tenuis 104
Calanthe woodii 104
Chrysoglossum 105
Chrysoglossum reticulatum 105
Collabium 107
Collabium oralifolium 107
Collabium simplex 107
Corybas 109
Corybas kinabaluensis 109
Corybas piliferus 110
Crepidium 110
Cryptostylis 115
Cryptostylis clemensii 115
Cymbidium 116
Cymbidium borneense 116
Dendrochilum stachyodes 118
Dilochia 118
Habenaria 121
Hetaeria 122
Hylophila 122
Lepidogyne 125
Liparis 127
Myrmechis 128
Nephelaphyllum 128
Nervilia 131
Odontochilus 131
Paphiopedilum 134
Paphiopedilum dayanum 134
Paphiopedilum hookerae var. volonteanum 136
Paphiopedilum javanicum var. virens 139
Paphiopedilum rothschildianum var rothschildianum 141
Peristylus 145
Phaius 146
Tainia 149
Tainia malayana 149
Tainia scapigera 149
Vrydagzynea 152
Epiphytes 152
Twig epiphytes 152
Bulbophyllum ceratostylis 152
Bulbophyllum chanii 154
Jejewoodia 157
Jejewoodia jiewhoei 157
Microtatorchis and Taeniophyllum 160
Branch epiphytes 162
Bulbophyllum trunk epiphytes 166
Bulbophyllum heldiorum 166
Bulbophyllum ionophyllum 166
Other trunk epiphytes 173
Appendicula congesta 173
Campanulorchis 173
Coelogyne monilirachis 175
Coelogyne septemcostata 177
Podochilus 177
Robiquetia crockerensis 178
Pendent epiphytes 178
Appendicula fractillexa 178
Bulbophyllum 178
Bulbophyllum pugilanthum 178
Bulbophyllum undecifilum 182
Coelogyne craticulaelabris 182
Dendrobium 185
Dendrobium grande 185
Dendrobium 185
Paraphalaenopsis labukensis 187
Climbers 189
Vanilla 189
Vanilla havilandii 189
Vanilla kinabaluensis 189
Vanilla pilifera 189
Other climbers 189
Dipodium 193
Myco-heterotrophs (holomycotrophs, mycoparasites) 193
Eulophia zollingeri 194
Cyrtosia javanica 194
Didymoplexiella kinabaluensis 194
Gastrodia grandilabris 196
Gastrodia spathulata 197
Platanthera saprophytica 197
Tropidia 197
Tropidia saprophytica 200
Morphology 200
Foliage characteristics 200
Leaf colouration 200
Leaf-sheaths 200
Leaf-blades – species with coloured nerves 200
Leaf-blades – species with zones of variegation, spotting or bright colouration 203
Distinctive leaf forms 204
Terete and semi-terete leaves 204
Bulbophyllum teces 204
Dendrobium uncatum 204
Schoenorchis buddleiflora 206
Thelasis carnosa 208
Laterally compressed, often fleshy leaves 208
Leaves with distinctive outlines 211
Indumentum 211
Pilophyllum 212
Trichotosia 212
Dendrobium (sections Conostalix and Formosae) 214
Some noteworthy orchids from Mount Kinabalu 216
Appendicula 216
Appendictda calcarata 216
Appendicula longirostrata 216
Ascidieria 219
Ascidieria maculiflora 219
Ascidieria pseudocymbiformis 221
Bromheadia 221
Bromheadia cecieliae 221
Bromheadia lohaniensis 224
Bromheadia longifolia 224
Bromheadia divaricata 224
Bulbophyllum 227
Bulbophylium section Altisceptrum 227
Bulbophyllum placochilum 227
Bulbophyllum section Aphanobulbon 229
Bulbophyllum stipitatibulbum 229
Bulbophyllum section Hapalochilus 229
Bulbophyllum lohokii 229
Bulbophyllum section Hirtula 231
Bulbophyllum polygaliflorum 231
Bulbophyllum section Intervallatae 231
Bulbophyllum mandibulare 231
Bulbophyllum section Leptopus 236
Bulbophyllum calceolus 236
Bulbophyllum section Monilibulbus 238
Bulbophyllum alatum 238
Bulbophyllum anguliferum 238
Bulbophyllum carrianum 240
Bulbophyllum proculcastris 240
Bulbophyllum section Sestochilus 240
Bulbophyllum uniflorum 240
Bulbophyllum vinaceum 242
Chelonistele 242
Chelonistele amplissima 244
Chelonistele lurida var. lurida 244
Cleisocentron 247
Cleisocentron abasii 247
Cleisocentron merrilhanum 247
Subtribe Coelogyninae 248
Inflorescence type in subtribe Coelogyninae 248
Coelogyne 248
Coelogyne section Hologyne 249
Coelogyne obtusifolia 249
Coelogyne section Longifoliae 249
Coelogyne compressicaulis 249
Coelogyne cuprea 252
Coelogyne kinabaluensis 252
Coelogyne planiscapa var. planiscapa and var. grandis 254
Coelogyne tenompokensis 254
Coelogyne section Rigidiformis 254
Coelogyne demensii 256
Coelogyne plicatissima 256
Coelogyne rigidiformis 256
Coelogyne section Speciosae 258
Coelogyne septemcostata 258
Coelogyne section Tomentosae (‘Necklace Orchids’) 258
Coelogyne genuflexa 261
Coelogyne hirtella 263
Coelogyne latiloba 265
Coelogyne longibulbosa 265
Coelogyne moultonii 267
Coelogyne odoardi 267
Coelogyne radioferens 267
Coelogyne rhabdobulbon 271
Coelogyne rupicola 271
Coelogyne section Verrucosae 275
Coelogyne pandurata 275
Cymbidium sigmoideum 275
Dendrobium 283
Dendrobium section Aporum 283
Dendrobium kiauense 283
Dendrobium patentilobum 283
Dendrobium section Calcarifera 285
Dendrobium cymboglossum 285
Dendrobium hamaticalcar 287
Dendrobium jiewhoei 290
Dendrobium serena-alexianum 292
Dendrobium section Conostalix 294
Dendrobium beamaniorum 294
Dendrobium hirsutifolium 296
Dendrobium section Crumenata (syn. Rhopalanthe) 296
Dendrobium kurashigei 296
Dendrobium singulare 298
Dendrobium tridentanun 301
Dendrobium section Dendrobium (syn. Eugenanthe) 301
Dendrobium tetrachromun 301
Dendrobium section Distichophyllum 304
Dendrobium daimandauii 304
Dendrobium lambii 304
Dendrobium lantrianum 307
Dendrobium maraiparaiense 309
Dendrobium piranha 309
Dendrobium section Latouria 312
Dendrobium macrophyllum var. ternatense 312
Dendrochilum 315
Dendrochilum section Cruciformia 315
Dendrochilum cruciforme 315
Dendrochilum grandiflorum 317
Dendrochilum section Eurybrachium 319
Dendrochilum acuilerum 320
Dendrochilum alpinum 320
Dendrochilum corruganun 322
Dendrochilum joclemensii 322
Dendrochilum pseudoscriptum 322
Dendrochilum pterogyne 328
Dendrochilum scriptum 329
Dendrochilum transversum 332
Dendrochilum section Platyclinis 332
Dendrochilum dewindtianum 332
Dendrochilum imitator 336
Dendrochilum kamborangense 336
Dendrochilum planiscapum 339
Dendrochilum tenompokense 341
Dimorphorchis 343
Dimorphorchis lowii 343
Dimorphorchis rossii 346
Entomophobia kinabaluensis 348
Grammatophyllum 350
Grammatophyllum kinabaluense 350
Liparis 352
Liparis acaulis 352
Liparis aurantiorbiculata 352
Liparis kinabaluensis 355
Liparis trifoliata 355
Liparis viridicallus 355
Macropodanthus 359
Macropodanthus sabahensis 359
Nabaluia 359
Ornithochilus 362
Ornithochilus difformis var. kinabaluensis 362
Pantlingia 365
Paphiopedilum ooii 367
Paphiopedilum sugiyamanum 368
Pennilabium 368
Pennilabium kidmancoxii 368
Pholidota 368
Pholidota sigmatochilus 369
Porpax 369
Porpax borneensis 371
Porrorhachis 372
Porrorhachis galbina 372
Pteroceras 372
Pteroceras muluense 375
Pteroceras spathibrachiatum 375
Robiquetia 375
Robiquetia crockerensis 375
Robiquetia pinosukensis 375
Robiquetia transversisaccata 377
Spathoglottis 379
Spathoglottis gracilis 379
Spathoglottis kimballiana 379
Stichorkis 382
Stichorkis pandurata 382
Thrixspermum 382
Thrixspermum crescentiforme 384
Thrixspermum triangulare 384
Thichoglottis 387
Thichoglottis collenetteae 387
Trichoglottis kinabahtensis 390
Trichoglottis magnicallosa 390
Trichoglottis sitihasmahae 392
Trichotosia 395
Trichotosia brevipedunculata 395
Vanda 396
Vanda gibbsiae 396
Vanda hastifera 400
Vanda helvola 400
Pollination 404
Bees (Hymenoptera) 404
Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) 406
Flies (Diptera) 406
Birds 408
Gregarious flowering 409
Systematics and phylogenetics 410
Subfamily Apostasioideae 411
Subfamily Cypripedioideae 413
Subfamily Orchidoideae 414
Subfamily Vanilloideae 414
Subfamily Epidenclroideae 414
Classification of Kinabalu orchids 415
Problematic genera 417
Eria 417
Liparis and Crepidium (formerly Malaxis sensu Iato) 419
The status of Dendrobium section Oxystophyllum 422
Orchids named after Mount Kinabalu 424
Orchids named after localities on Mount Kinabalu 425
Keys 426
Artificial key to subfamilies 426
Key to genera (excluding myco-heterotrophs and subtribe Aeridinae) 426
Key to genera of subtribe Aeridinae 433
Key to myco-heterotrophic genera 435

Volume 2

Enumeration   1
A note about the keys   1
A note about the genera and species placed in square brackets   1
Abdaminea   1
Acanthephippium   2
Acriopsis   5
Adenoncos   6
Aerides   9
Aeridostachya   11
Agrostophyllum   14
Ania   19
Anoectochilus   21
Aphyllorchis   22
Apostasia   23
Appendicula   27
Arachnis   42
Arundina   47
Ascidieria   47
Ascochilopsis   55
Bogoria   55
Brachypeza   58
Bromheadia   58
Bryobium   65
Bulbophyllum   69
Calanthe   158
Callostylis   169
Campanulorchis   171
Ceratostylis   176
Chamaeanthus   181
Chelonistele   182
Chroniochilus   186
Chrysoglossum   189
Claderia   189
Cleisocentron   190
Cleisostoma   193
Coelogyne   200
Collabium   226
Cordiglottis   227
Corybas   228
Corymborkis   229
Crepidium   232
Cryptostylis   239
Cylindrolobus   240
Cymbidium   244
Cyrtosia   248
Cystorchis   250
Dendrobium   252
Dendrochilum   296
Dendrolirium   324
Didymoplexiella   325
Didymoplexis   327
Dienia   327
Dilochia   328
Dimorphorchis   331
Dipodium   332
Entomophobia   332
Epigeneium   334
Epipogium   339
Eria   341
Erythrodes   343
Eulophia   344
Flickingeria   346
Galeola   351
Gastrochilus   354
Gastrodia   354
Geodorum   358
Goodyera   358
Grammatophyllum   364
Grosourdya   365
Habenaria   365
Hetaeria   368
Hylophila   372
Jejewoodia   373
Kuhlhasseltia   375
Lecanorchis   375
Lepidogyne   377
Liparis   377
Luisia   390
Macodes   392
Macropodanthus   395
Malleola   398
Micropera   406
Micosaccus   408
Microtatorchis   410
Mischobulbum   410
Mycaranthes   411
Myrmechis   420
Nabaluia   421
Nephelaphyllum   424
Nervilia   425
Neuwiedia   426
Oberonia   430
Octarrhena   437
Odontochilus   438
Oeceoclades   441
Ornithochilus   441
Oxystophyllum   443
Pantlingia   444
Paphiopedilum   444
Paraphalaenopsis   450
Pennilabium   451
Perislylus   454
Phaius   460
Phalaenopsis   464
Phalidota   469
Phreatia   482
Pilophyllum   488
Pinalia   489
Platanthera   495
Plocoglottis   498
Poaephyllum   500
Podochilus   502
Polystachya   505
Pomatocalpa   506
Porpax   508
Porrorhachis   511
Pteroceras   511
Renanthera   516
Rhomboda   518
Robiquetia   518
Schoenorchis   520
Spathoglottis   523
Spiranthes   527
Stereosandra   529
Stichorkis   529
Taeniophyllum   534
Tainia   536
Thecopus   538
Thecostele   543
Thelasis   543
Thrixspermum   548
Trichoglottis   555
Trichotosia   561
Tropidia   571
Tuberolabium   575
Vanda   576
Vanilla   577
Vrydagzynea   581
Zeuxine   583

Colour plates   589
Index to numbered collections   626
Glossary of scientific terms and abbreviations   648
Literature cited   666
General index   676
Index to scientific names   682
Notes about the authors   725


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