Books  General Natural History  Environmental History 

The Lost Woodlands of Ancient Nasca: A Case-study in Ecological and Cultural Collapse

By: David Beresford-Jones

266 pages, B/w photos, illus, figs, tabs

Oxford University Press

Hardback | Jun 2011 | #190933 | ISBN-13: 9780197264768
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £55.00 $69/€65 approx

About this book

This book presents an archaeological case of prehistoric human environmental impact: a study of ecological and cultural change from the arid south coast of Peru, beginning around 750 bc and culminating in a collapse during the Middle Horizon, around ad 900. Its focus is the lower Ica Valley - today depopulated and bereft of cultivation and yet with archaeological remains attesting to substantial prehistoric occupations - thereby presenting a prima facie case for changed environmental conditions.

Previous archaeological interpretations of cultural changes in the region rely heavily on climatic factors such as El Nino floods and long droughts. While the archaeological, geomorphological and archaeobotanical records presented here do indeed include new evidence of huge ancient flood events, they also demonstrate the significance of more gradual, human-induced destruction of Prosopis pallida (huarango) riparian dry-forest. The huarango is a remarkable leguminous hardwood that lives for over a millennium and provides forage, fuel, and food.

Moreover, it is crucial to the integration of a fragile desert ecosystem, enhancing microclimate and soil fertility and moisture. Its removal exposed this landscape to the effects of El Nino climatic perturbations long before Europeans arrived in Peru. This case-study therefore contradicts the popular perception that native Americans inflicted barely perceptible disturbance upon a New World Eden. Yet, no less interestingly, it also records correlations between changes in society and degrees of human environmental impact. These allow inferences about the specific contexts in which significant human environmental impacts in the New World did, and did not, arise.


Contents

1. Introduction; 2. The South Coast Desert; 3. A Lost Landscape - Ancient Settlement of Ullujaya and Samaca; 4. Tracing Landscape Change - The Geomorphological Record; 5. Tracing Human Ecology - The Archaeobotanical and Malacological Record; 6. Deforestation; 7. The Huarango - The Genus Prosopis on the South Coast; 8. The Huarango in Desert Riparian and Agricultural Ecosystems; 9. The Sonoran Desert - An Ethnoecological Analogue; 10. Putting the Tree Back into the Landscape

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