Books  Environmental Science  Environmental Science: General 

Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters

Handbook / Manual

By: Yuriy Posudin (Author)

John Wiley & Sons

Hardback | Aug 2014 | #218646 | ISBN-13: 9781118686935
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £73.50 $94/€88 approx

About this book

Provides a systematic review of modern methods and instruments for measuring environmental parameters
- Profiles the most modern methods and instruments for environment control and monitoring
- Gives an assessment of biotic and abiotic factors and their effect on quality of atmosphere and indoor air, soil, water
- Provides a brief description of the main climatic (pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radiation), atmospheric, hydrographic, and edaphic factors
- Covers a wide range environmental methods and instrumentation including those used in the fields of meteorology, air pollution, water quality, soil science and more
- Supplied with practical exercises, problems, and tests that will help the reader to learn more deeply contents of the book


Contents

Concise table of contents:

PREFACE xxv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxix
ABOUT THE BOOK xxxi
ABOUT THE AUTHOR xxxiii
INTRODUCTION 1
Some Principal Definitions, 1

PART I CLIMATIC FACTORS
1 Pressure 5
2 Measurement of Pressure 14
3 Wind 34
4 Measurement of Wind Parameters 38
5 Temperature 57
6 Measurement of Temperature 67
7 Humidity 85
8 Measurement of Air Humidity 88
9 Precipitation 103
10 Measurement of Precipitation 112
11 Solar Radiation 141
12 Measurement of Solar Radiation 148
13 Eddy Covariance 164

PART II ATMOSPHERIC FACTORS
14 Measurement of Eddy Covariance 169
15 Atmosphere 183
16 Measurement of Ambient Air Quality 185
17 Indoor Air Quality 223

PART III HYDROGRAPHIC FACTORS
18 Methods of Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds 229
19 Water Quality 247

PART IV EDAPHIC FACTORS
20 Measurement of Water Quality Parameters 253
21 Soil Quality 275
22 Physical Indicators 278
23 Chemical Indicators 291

PART V VEGETATION FACTORS
24 Biological Indicators 297

PART VI PHYSICAL TYPES OF POLLUTION
25 Spectroscopic Analysis of Plants and Vegetation 315
26 Mechanical Vibration 345
27 Measurement of Vibration 348
28 Noise 351
29 Measurement of Noise 356
30 Thermal Pollution 362
31 Measurement of Thermal Pollution 364
32 Light Pollution 365
33 Measurement of Light Pollution 368
34 Electromagnetic Pollution 371
35 Measurement of Electromagnetic Pollution 377
36 Radioactive Pollution 380

PART VII BIOTIC FACTORS
37 Measurement of Ionizing Radiation 385
38 Bioindication 401
39 Biomonitoring 407

References, 411
Practical Exercise 14
Photomovement Parameters as Test-Functions During Biomonitoring 412
1 Simultaneous Use of Several Test-Functions During Biomonitoring, 412
2 Vector Method of Biomonitoring, 413
Questions and Problems, 414
References, 415
Further Reading, 415
Electronic References, 415
APPENDIX 417
INDEX 421


Detailed table of contents:

PREFACE xxv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxix
ABOUT THE BOOK xxxi
ABOUT THE AUTHOR xxxiii
INTRODUCTION 1

Some Principal Definitions, 1

PART I CLIMATIC FACTORS

1 Pressure 5
1.1 Definition of Pressure, 5
1.2 Atmospheric Pressure, 6
1.3 Physiological Effects of Decreased Air Pressure on Human Organism, 9
1.4 Physiological Effects of Altitude on Animals, 9
1.5 Effects of Altitude on Plants, 9
1.6 Variation of Pressure with Depth, 10
1.7 Physiological Effects of Increased Pressure on Human Organism, 11
1.8 Physiological Effects of Pressure on Diving Animals, 12
References, 13

2 Measurement of Pressure 14
2.1 Manometers, 14
2.2 Barometers, 17
2.3 Digital Barometric Pressure Sensor, 19
2.4 Vibrating Wire Sensor, 20
2.5 Capacitive Pressure Sensor, 20
2.6 Measurement of Pressure at Depth, 22
Questions and Problems, 23
Further Reading, 23
Electronic References, 23
Practical Exercise 1. Analysis of Observed Data: Theory of Errors 25
1 Approximation of Data, 25
1.1 Rules for Dealing with Significant Numbers, 25
1.2 The Precision of the Measurement During Multiplication or Division, 26
1.3 The Precision of the Measurement During Addition or Subtraction, 26
1.4 The Precision of the Measurement During Raising to a Power or Extracting a Root, 26
2 Theory of Errors, 26
2.1 Types of Errors, 26
2.2 Errors in Direct Measurements, 27
2.3 Errors in Indirect Measurements, 29
References, 33
Electronic Reference, 33

3 Wind 34
3.1 Definition of Wind, 34
3.2 Forces That Create Wind, 34
3.3 Parameters of Wind, 35
3.4 Effect of Wind on Living Organisms, 37
Reference, 37

4 Measurement of Wind Parameters 38
4.1 Cup Anemometer, 38
4.2 Windmill Anemometer, 40
4.3 Hot-Wire Anemometer, 41
4.4 Sonic Anemometer, 42
4.5 Remote Wind Sensing, 43
4.6 Measurement of Wind Direction, 47
4.7 Cyclone Assessment, 49
Reference, 49
Practical Exercise 2. Modeling the Variation inWind Speed 50
1 Modeling Variation in Wind Speed Near the Ground, 50
2 Modeling the Variation in Wind Speed Above a Plant Canopy, 52
Questions and Problems, 55
Reference, 56
Further Reading, 56
Electronic References, 56

5 Temperature 57
5.1 Definition of Temperature, 57
5.2 Temperature Scales, 57
5.3 Atmospheric Temperature, 59
5.4 Soil Temperature, 59
5.5 Temperature of Water Reservoirs, 60
5.6 Heat Flux, 60
5.7 Effect of Temperature on Living Organisms, 61

6 Measurement of Temperature 67
6.1 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers, 67
6.2 Bimetallic Thermometer, 69
6.3 Resistance Thermometer, 70
6.4 Thermocouples, 71
6.5 Optical Pyrometry, 72
6.6 Infrared Thermometers, 73
6.7 Heat Flux Measurement, 74
6.8 Method of Scintillometry, 76
References, 77
Practical Exercise 3. Modeling Vertical Changes in Air Temperature 78
1 Measurement of Temperature Above Uniform Surface, 78
2 Measurement of Sensible Heat Flux, 82
Questions and Problems, 83
Reference, 83
Further Reading, 83
Electronic References, 84

7 Humidity 85
7.1 Definition of Humidity, 85
7.2 Parameters of Humidity, 85
7.3 Effect of Humidity on Living Organisms, 86

8 Measurement of Air Humidity 88
8.1 Hygrometers, 88
8.2 Assmann Psychrometer, 88
8.3 Hair Hygrometer, 91
8.4 Capacitive Hygrometer, 92
8.5 Condensation Hygrometer, 93
8.6 Electrolytic Hygrometer, 95
8.7 Radiation Absorption Hygrometer (Gas Analyzer), 95
8.8 An Open-Path System for Measuring Humidity, 96
8.9 Remote Sensing Humidity, 97
Practical Exercise 4. Measuring Parameters of Humidity 99
1 Objectives, 99
2 Materials Supplied, 99
3 Principle of Operation, 99
4 Experimental Procedure, 100
Questions and Problems, 101
Reference, 101
Further Reading, 101
Electronic Reference, 102

9 Precipitation 103
9.1 Definitions, 103
9.2 Mechanisms of Precipitation, 103
9.3 Parameters of Precipitation, 104
9.4 Acid Rain, 104
9.5 Interception, 105
9.6 General Characteristics of Isotopes, 105
9.7 Stable Isotopes of Water, 105
9.8 Isotopic Fractionation, 106
9.9 Stable Isotopes in Precipitation Processes, 106
9.10 Application of Stable Isotopes, 107
9.11 Effect of Precipitation on Living Organisms, 107
9.12 Snow, 108
9.13 Fog, 109
References, 111

10 Measurement of Precipitation 112
10.1 Measurement of Precipitation Parameters, 112
10.2 Measurement of Acid Rain Pollution, 119
10.3 Isotopes in Precipitation, 121
10.4 Remote Sensing of Precipitation, 126
10.5 Snow Measurement, 129
10.6 Fog-Water Measurement, 132
References, 132
Practical Exercise 5. Velocity of a Falling Raindrop 134
1 Balance of Forces, 134
2 The Size and Shape of Raindrops, 135
3 The Drag Coefficient, 135
4 The Reynolds Number, 135
Questions and Problems, 138
References, 138
Further Reading, 138
Electronic References, 139

11 Solar Radiation 141
11.1 SI Radiometry and Photometry Units, 141
11.2 The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density, 142
11.3 Parameters of Sun, 142
11.4 Intensity of the Sun, 142
11.5 Periodicity of Solar Activity, 144
11.6 Spectral Composition of Solar Radiation, 144
11.7 Atmospheric Radiation, 144
11.8 Terrestrial Radiation, 145
11.9 Effect of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Living Organisms, 145
11.10 Effect of Solar Visible Radiation on Living Organisms, 146
References, 147

12 Measurement of Solar Radiation 148
12.1 Classification of Radiometers, 148
12.2 Measurement of Direct Solar Radiation—Pyrheliometer, 149
12.3 Measurement of Global Radiation—Pyranometer, 149
12.4 Measurement of Diffuse Radiation—Pyranometer with a Sun-Shading Ring, 150
12.5 Measurement of Long-Wave Radiation—Pyrgeometer, 150
12.6 Measurement of Albedo—Albedometer, 151
12.7 Measurement of Total Radiation—a 4-Component Net Radiometer, 152
12.8 Photometer, 153
12.9 Photon Meter, 154
12.10 Conversion of Light Environment Units, 155
Practical Exercise 6. Parameters of Optical Radiation 156
1 Parameters of Electromagnetic Radiation, 156
2 The Inverse-Square Law, 157
3 The Cosine Law, 158
4 The Wien’s Displacement Law, 159
5 The Stefan–Boltzmann Law, 160
6 The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density, 160
7 The Laboratory Exercise “The Inverse-Square Law”, 160
Questions and Problems, 162
Further Reading, 162
Electronic Reference, 163

13 Eddy Covariance 164
13.1 Turbulence, 164
13.2 Boundary Layer, 164
13.3 Eddy Covariance, 165
13.4 Turbulent Velocity Fluctuations, 166
13.5 Vertical Momentum Flux, 167
13.6 Sensible Heat Flux, 167
13.7 Latent Heat Flux, 167
13.8 Carbon Dioxide Flux, 168
References, 168

14 Measurement of Eddy Covariance 169
14.1 Meteorological Towers, 169
14.2 Gas Analyzers, 170
14.3 Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric Gases: Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements, 171
14.4 Stable Isotopes of Carbon Dioxide, 172
14.5 Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometry, 173
14.6 Eddy Covariance Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Isotopologues, 173
14.7 Measurement of Eddy Accumulation, 174
14.8 Interaction of Climatic Factors, 174
14.9 Automatic Weather Stations, 175
Reference, 176
Practical Exercise 7. Eddy Covariance Measurement 177
Questions and Problems, 178
Further Reading, 179
Electronic Reference, 180

PART II ATMOSPHERIC FACTORS

15 Atmosphere 183
15.1 Composition of the Atmosphere, 183
15.2 Air Pollution, 183
15.3 Air Quality, 184
Reference, 184

16 Measurement of Ambient Air Quality 185
16.1 Measurement of NO2, 185
16.2 Effect of Nitrogen Dioxide on Human Health, 195
16.3 Measurement of SO2, 195
16.4 Effect of Sulfur Dioxide on Human Health, 198
16.5 Measurement of CO, 198
16.6 Particulate Matter Sampling, 202
16.7 Gravimetric Methods, 203
16.8 Continuous Methods, 206
16.9 Effect of Particulate Matter on Human Health, 208
16.10 Nanoparticles, 209
16.11 Effect of Nanoparticles on Human Health, 209
16.12 Bioaerosols, 209
16.13 Bioaerosol Sampling and Identification, 210
16.14 Measurement of Atmospheric Ozone, 212
16.15 Measurement of Ground-Level Ozone, 214
16.16 Effect of Ozone on Human Health, 214
16.17 Measurement of Lead, 214
16.18 Effect of Lead on Human Health, 216
References, 216
Practical Exercise 8. Fundamentals of Spectroscopy 218
1 Beer–Lambert–Bouger Law, 218
2 Photometry of Ozone in Gas Phase, 219
3 Fourier Transform Spectrometry, 220
Questions and Problems, 221
Further Reading, 221
Electronic References, 221

17 Indoor Air Quality 223
17.1 Indoor Air, 223
17.2 Volatile Organic Compounds, 224
17.3 Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds, 224
17.4 Effect of External Factors on VOCs Emission in Indoor Air, 225
17.5 Health Effects and Toxicity of Volatile Organic Compounds, 226
References, 227

18 Methods of Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds 229
18.1 Principal Stages of Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis, 229
18.2 Gas Chromatography, 230
18.3 Detection Systems, 231
18.4 Mass Spectrometry, 233
18.5 Combination of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, 235
18.6 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, 236
18.7 Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, 238
18.8 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Volatile Organic Compounds, 239
Questions and Problems, 240
References, 240
Further Reading, 242
Electronic References, 242

PART III HYDROGRAPHIC FACTORS

19 Water Quality 247
19.1 Water Resources, 247
19.2 Properties of Water, 247
19.3 Classification of Water, 249
19.4 Quality of Water, 249
19.5 Water Quality Parameters, 249
19.6 Effect of Water Quality on Human Health, 251
References, 252

20 Measurement of Water Quality Parameters 253
20.1 In Situ Measurement of Water Quality Parameters, 253
20.2 Laboratory Measurement of Water Quality Parameters, 262
References, 266
Practical Exercise 9. Water Quality Parameters 267
1 pH-Value, 267
2 Oxidation–Reduction Potential. Nernst Equation, 267
3 Conductivity, 268
4 Water Quality Index, 269
Questions and Problems, 269
Further Reading, 270
Electronic References, 270

PART IV EDAPHIC FACTORS

21 Soil Quality 275
21.1 Soil as a Natural Body, 275
21.2 Soil Structure and Composition, 276
21.3 Soil Quality, 276
21.4 Soil Quality Indicators, 277
References, 277

22 Physical Indicators 278
22.1 Aggregate Stability, 278
22.2 Measurement of Aggregate Stability, 279
22.3 Available Water Capacity, 280
22.4 Measurement of Available Water Capacity, 280
22.5 Bulk Density, 282
22.6 Measurement of Bulk Density, 284
22.7 Infiltration, 285
22.8 Measurement of Infiltration, 286
References, 289

23 Chemical Indicators 291
23.1 pH of Soil, 291
23.2 Electrical Conductivity of Soil, 292
23.3 Optical Emission Spectroscopy with Inductively Coupled Plasma, 292
23.4 Mass Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma, 293
23.5 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, 294
References, 295

24 Biological Indicators 297
24.1 Earthworms as Soil Bioindicators, 297
24.2 Analysis of Earthworms, 298
24.3 A Biota-to-Soil Accumulation Factor, 299
24.4 Soil Respiration, 299
24.5 Measurement of Soil Respiration, 300
References, 303
Practical Exercise 10. Determination of the Sedimentation Velocity and the Density of Solid Particles 305
1 Derivation of the Sedimentation Equation, 305
2 Determination of the Sedimentation Velocity of Solid Particles, 306
3 Determination of the Density of Solid Particles, 307
Questions and Problems, 308
Further Reading, 308
Electronic References, 309

PART V VEGETATION FACTORS

25 Spectroscopic Analysis of Plants and Vegetation 315
25.1 Spectroscopic Approach, 315
25.2 Reflectance Spectroscopy, 317
25.3 Methods of Reflectance Spectroscopy, 317
25.4 Effect of External Factors on Single Leaf and Canopy Reflectance, 324
25.5 Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 325
25.6 Laboratory Methods of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 327
25.7 Remote Sensing of Vegetation Fluorescence, 333
25.8 The Effect of Various Factors on the Chlorophyll Fluorescence, 335
References, 335
Practical Exercise 11. Determination of Perpendicular Vegetation Index 338
Questions and Problems, 340
Further Reading, 341
Electronic References, 341

PART VI PHYSICAL TYPES OF POLLUTION

26 Mechanical Vibration 345
26.1 Parameters of Vibration, 345
26.2 Vibration Level, 346
26.3 Sources of Vibration, 346
26.4 Effect of Vibration on Human Health, 346

27 Measurement of Vibration 348
27.1 Resistive Transducers, 348
27.2 Electromagnetic Transducers, 349
27.3 Capacitive Transducers, 349
27.4 Piezoelectric Transducers, 349
27.5 Laser Doppler Vibrometer, 350

28 Noise 351
28.1 Main Defintions of Noise, 351
28.2 Sources of Noise, 351
28.3 Parameters of Noise, 352
28.4 Equivalent Sound Level, 352
28.5 Integrating Sound Level, 353
28.6 Spectral Density of Noise, 353
28.7 Effect of Noise on Human Health, 354
28.8 Mechanisms of Noise Action, 354
28.9 How to Protect Yourself from Noise, 355
28.10 Effect of Noise Pollution on Ecosystem, 355

29 Measurement of Noise 356
29.1 Sound Level Meters, 356
29.2 Types of Microphones, 357
29.3 Noise Frequency Analyzers, 357
29.4 Sound Intensity Measurement, 357
Practical Exercise 12. Sound Insulation and Reverberation Time 358
1 Sound Insulation, 358
2 Reverberation Time, 359

30 Thermal Pollution 362
30.1 Sources of Thermal Pollution, 362
30.2 The Effect of Thermal Pollution on Living Organisms, 362

31 Measurement of Thermal Pollution 364
31.1 Thermal Discharge Index, 364
31.2 Indirect Measurement of Thermal Pollution, 364

32 Light Pollution 365
32.1 The Sources of Light Pollution, 365
32.2 Types of Light Pollution, 365
32.3 Effects of Light Pollution on Human Health, 366
32.4 Effects of Light Pollution on Wildlife, 367
References, 367

33 Measurement of Light Pollution 368
33.1 Digital Photography, 368
33.2 Portable Spectrophotometers, 369
33.3 Sky Quality Meter, 369
33.4 The Bortle Scale, 370
References, 370

34 Electromagnetic Pollution 371
34.1 Principal Terminology and Units, 371
34.2 Electromagnetic Pollution, 372
34.3 Effect of Elecromagnetic Pollution on Human Health, 373
References, 376

35 Measurement of Electromagnetic Pollution 377
35.1 EMF Meter, 377
35.2 Types of EMF Meters, 377

36 Radioactive Pollution 380
36.1 Principal Definitions, 380
36.2 Units of Radioactivity, 381
36.3 Nuclear Explosions and Testing of Nuclear Weapons, 381
36.4 Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, 382
References, 384

37 Measurement of Ionizing Radiation 385
37.1 Doses of Ionizing Radiation, 385
37.2 Gas-Filled Detectors, 386
37.3 Scintillation Counter, 390
37.4 Semiconductor Diode Detector, 390
37.5 Thermoluminescent Dosimeter, 391
Practical Exercise 13. Investigation of Radionuclide Activity and Determination of the Absorption Coefficient of Gamma Radiation 393
1 Objectives, 393
2 Theory, 393
3 Experiment, 394
Questions and Problems, 395
References, 396
Further Reading, 396
Electronic References, 397

PART VII BIOTIC FACTORS

38 Bioindication 401
38.1 Lichens as Bioindicators, 401
38.2 Algae as Bioindicators, 402
38.3 Classification of Water Reservoirs, 402
38.4 Water Quality Indices, 402
38.5 Invertebrates as Bioindicators, 404
References, 406
Electronic References, 406

39 Biomonitoring 407
39.1 Test-Organisms and Test-Functions, 407
39.2 Bacteria as Test-Objects, 408
39.3 Protozoa as Test-Objects, 408
39.4 Algae as Test-Objects, 408
39.5 Invertebrates as Test-Objects, 409
39.6 Fungi as Test-Objects, 410
39.7 Fish as Test-Objects, 410
39.8 Remote Water-Quality Monitoring, 411
References, 411
Practical Exercise 14. Photomovement Parameters as Test-Functions During Biomonitoring 412
1 Simultaneous Use of Several Test-Functions During Biomonitoring, 412
2 Vector Method of Biomonitoring, 413
Questions and Problems, 414
References, 415
Further Reading, 415
Electronic References, 415

APPENDIX 417
INDEX 421


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Biography

Yuriy Posudin is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Dr Posudin is the author of numerous books, journal articles, and the inventor of various methods, and instruments for environmental and biological monitoring.

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