Phialidic species described in Chloridium are revised, described from the natural substrate and/or cultures and connected with perfect states wherever possible. The correct name of the type species of the genus is Chloridium virescens (Pers. ex Pers.) comb. nov. (basionym Dematium virescens Pers.), and the connection with Chaetosphaeria vermicularioides (Sacc. & Roum.) comb. nov. (syn. Eriosphaeria vermicularioides Sacc. & Roum.) has been established. C. chlamydosporis (van Beyma) Hughes and C. caudigerum (Höhn.) Hughes are considered as varieties of C. virescens. These three taxa constitute the section Chloridium which is characterized by phialides with multiple conidiogenous loci active within the collarette. Section Gongromeriza (Preuss) comb. nov. has phialides with a single basipetal sequence of conidia formed within a collarette, in section Psilobotrys (Sacc.) comb. nov. the phialides are constricted at the tip to a narrow collarette and mostly proliferate sympodially.
Sect. Gongromeriza contains nine species (incl. C. pachytrachelum, C. phaeosporum, C. matsushimae and C. preussii spp. nov.) of which four are connected with Chaetosphaeria perfect states. Sect. Psilobotrys contains two species, Chaetosphaeria innumera Berk. & Br. ex Tul. (with C. botryoideum (Corda) Hughes var. botryoideum and C. botryoideum var. minutum (Sacc.) comb. nov. as conidial states), and Chaetosphaeria f. fusispora sp. nov. (with C. cylindrosporum st. nov. as its conidial state). Twenty-five other dematiaceous phialidic genera with simple or little branched (but not penicillate) conidiophores are keyed out and five considered in detail. Cylindrotrichum oligospermum (Corda) Bonord. is close to Chloridium sect. Psilobotrys, but has two-celled conidia formed on polyphialides and sterile setae; C. hennebertii sp. nov. has similar conidiophores, slightly shorter conidia and no sterile setae; C. zignoëllae (Höhn.) comb. nov., the presumptive conidial state of Chaetosphaeria abietis (Höhn.) comb. nov. (syn. Zignoëlla abietis Höhn.) and Cylindrotrichum clavatum sp. nov. do not proliferate sympodially and have no sterile setae. Exochalara gen. nov. is described to accomodate Chalara longissima Grove and Catenularia guadalcanalensis Matsushima with large, catenulate, one-celled conidia.
Smaller species with usually discrete, thin-walled phialides and catenulate conidia are accomodated in Phialophora sect. Catenulatae sect. nov., viz. Lasiosphaeria hirsuta (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. with Phialophora lasiosphaeriae st. nov., P. clavispora, P. oxyspora, P. olivacea, P. phaeophora, P. brachyconia, P. hyalina and P. brevicollaris spp. nov. and P. rhodogena (Mangenot) comb. nov. (syn. Scopulariopsis rhodogena Mangenot). The very similar Chalara state of Ceratocystis autographa Bakshi and Chalara microchona sp. nov. as well as the conidial state of Cryptendoxyla hypophloia Malloch & Cain are included for comparison. Four species (one new) and three new varieties of Gonytrichum are keyed out: G. mirabile sp. nov., G. caesium var. subglobosum and var. chloridioides and G. chlamydosporium var. simile vars. nov. The perfect state of G. chlamydosporium is Chaetosphaeria chloroconia sp. nov. Verticillium cyclosporum (Grove) Mason & Hughes and V. tenuissimum Corda are accomodated in the new genus Phaeostalagmus and described from pure culture. Single new species are described in both Codinaea and Fusichalara.
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