The environmental problems caused by petroleum-based plastic and plastic waste have led to an increasing demand for biobased and biodegradable plastics, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).
These polyesters are synthesized from carbon sources, e.g. sugar and plant oils, by various bacteria. Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Palm Oil: Biodegradable Plastics highlights the potential of plant oils, especially palm oil, as a feedstock for PHA production. In addition, new PHA applications are discussed and the sustainability of PHA production from plant oils is critically examined.
1 INTRODUCTION 2 BIO-BASED AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 2.1 Overview of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) 2.2 PHA biosynthesis 2.3 PHA granule formation 2.4 Detection and quantification of PHA 2.5 Some commercially attractive PHAs 2.5.1 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] 2.5.2 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] 2.5.3 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] 2.5.4 Terpolymer 2.5.5 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] 2.5.6 PHA with unusual HA monomers 2.5.7 Recent discovery of LA-based monomers 2.6 Production of PHA in microorganisms and plants 2.7 Carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis 2.7.1 Sugars 2.7.2 Triglycerides 2.7.3 Industrial waste stream and by-products 2.8 Extracellular PHA degradation 2.8.1 Lipolytic enzymes 3 PLANT OILS AND AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS AS CARBON FEEDSTOCK FOR PHA PRODUCTION 3.1 Why plant oils are potential carbon feedstock for PHA 3.2 Effect of fatty acids on cell growth and PHA accumulation 3.3 Challenges in using plant oils as carbon feedstock for PHA production 3.4 Palm oil - a potential renewable feedstock for PHA production 3.5 Characteristics of palm oil 3.6 The palm oil agro industry in Malaysia 4.0 IS PALM OIL PRODUCED IN A SUSTAINABLE MANNER? 4.1 Land management and conservation of biodiversity 4.2 Concern over the conversion of plant oils to consumer products 4.3 Integrated system for palm oil and PHA production 4.4 Is the palm oil supply in Malaysia sufficient for continuous large-scale PHA production in the future? 4.5 Biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA from palm oil products 4.6 Evaluation of palm oil by-products and spent cooking oil as carbon source 5 JATROPHA OIL AS A POTENTIAL CARBON SOURCE FOR PHA PRODUCTION 5.1 Jatropha curcas L. (Linnaeus) 5.2 The advantages of Jatropha curcas L. 5.3 Toxins and phytochemicals of Jatropha curcas L. 5.4 Jatropha oil 5.5 Case study on the use of Jatropha oil as a carbon substrate for PHA biosynthesis 6 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF PHA 6.1 Some new applications of PHA 6.2 Biomedical applications of PHA 6.3 Electrospun PHA tissue-engineering scaffolds 6.4 PHA based nanocomposite materials for textile dye wastewater treatment 6.4.1 Effect of CHCl3 neat solvent on the electrospinnability of P (3HB) 6.4.2 Effect of CHCl3/DMF mixed solvent on the electrospinnability of P (3HB) 6.4.3 Electrospinning of P(3HB)-TiO2 nanocomposite fibers 6.4.4 Effect of CHCl3/DMF ratio on the morphology of electrospun P(3HB)-50 wt% TiO2 nanocomposite fibers 6.4.5 Effect of applied voltage on the morphology of electrospun P(3HB)-50 wt% TiO2 nanocomposite fibers 6.4.6 Bactericidal assessment on cast and electrospun P(3HB)-50 wt% TiO2 nanocomposite fibers 7 SUMMARY AND FUTURE OUTLOOK REFERENCES
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