Taxonomic revision of Indian Lepidoziineae has been made. Seven genera: Lepidozia (Dumort.) Dumort., Kurzia v. Mart., Dendrobazzania Schust. et Schof., Bazzania S.F. Gray, Acromastigum Evans, Metacalypogeia (Hatt.) Inoue and Calypogeia Raddi falling under two families Lepidoziaceae (Lepidozioideae and Bazzanioideae) and Calypogeiaceae have been recognized to occur in the Indian subcontinent. Relevant descriptions with keys to segregate the various taxonomic groups and species have been provided.
The taxonomic treatment of each species include full citation, relevant synonymy with their type specimen, explicit morpho-taxonomic description followed by their habitat, type locality, distributional range (in India and elsewhere), characteristic features, reference to the specimens examined and discussions covering the specific diversities of the taxon, its affinities with related ones and elucidation of those features which have not been adequately taken into consideration by earlier workers.
The taxonomic parameter for the differentiation of various genera and species includes the overall plant size, colour and form, stem anatomy, nature of cortical cells, shape, size and cells of leaves and underleaves, their lobing in relation to their length and the leaf cuticle (where studied). Sometimes other features such as sexuality, male inflorescence, male bracts and bracteoles, female inflorescence, perianth morphology, sporophytic details (where found) in conjunction with the above are also partly helpful in taxonomic delimination. Nine species of Lepidozia, L. robusta St., L. wallichiana Gott., L. udarii Srivast. et al., L. flexuosa Mitt., L. minima St., L. brevifolia Mitt., L. stahlii St., L. erosa St. and L. reptans (L.) Dumort.; two species of Kurzia, K. makinoana (St.) Grolle and K. tenerrima (Mitt. ex St.) Grolle [Kurzia pauciflora (Dicks.) Grolle erroneously reported from Eastern Himalaya has been included for the comparison with other Indian species]; one species of Dendrobazzania, D. griffithiana (St.) Schust. et Schof.; thirteen species of Bazzania, B. assamica (St.) Hatt., B. sumbavensis (Gott. ex St.) St., B. himalayana (Mitt.) Hatt., B. oshimensis (St.) Horik., B. orientalis (St.) Parihar, B. tridens (Reinw., Bl. et Nees) Trev., B. appendiculata (Mitt.) Hatt., B. sikkimensis (St.) Herz., B. ovistipula (St.) Mizut., B. imbricata (Mitt.) Hatt., B. tricrenata (Wahlenb.) Lindb., B. pearsonii St., B. praerupta (Reinw., Bl. et Nees) Trev.; one species of Acromastigum, A. inaequilaterum (Lehm. et Lindenb.) Evans; one species of Metacalypogeia, M. alternifolia (Nees) Grolle and six species of Calypogeia, C. arguta Nees et Mont., C. lunata Mitt., C. aeruginosa Mitt., C. marginella Mitt., C. ﬁssa (L.) Raddi and C. azurea Stotler et Crotz have been validly recognized.
The comparative study of the characteristic features in the different taxa resulted in some changes in their status. Lepidozia plicatistipula Herz., L. sikkimensis St. and Calypogeia gollanii St. have been found to be conspeciﬁc to L. robusta, L. reptans and C. azurea respectively. Two varieties and a species hither to regarded as synonym of B. tridens namely B. tridens var. assamica (St.) Pócs, B. tridens var. oshimensis (St.) Pócs and B. orientalis (St.) Parihar have been segregated from B. tridens and are treated here as distinct species.
In addition several extensions of range within the country have been established for many taxa. These are Lepidozia brevifolia and L. erosa earlier known from Sikkim and Eastern Himalaya have been also found in Western Himalaya and South India respectively. Bazzania imbricata and B. tricrenata have also been collected from Valley of ﬂowers. B. praerupta has been found for the ﬁrst time from Dhakuri and Loharkhet (on way to Pindari Glaciers) in the Western Himalaya. Calypogeia arguta earlier restricted to South India is shown to occur also in several localities of Eastern Himalaya.
SEM studies of leaf surface revealed interesting cuticle ornamentation and provided for the first time some details as sound and stable taxonomic marker in the genera Dendrobazzania, Bazzania, Acromastigum, Metaclaypogeia and Calypogeia. Dendrobazzania grifﬁthiana (St.) Schust. et Schof. is closely related to Bazzania praerupta however, the cuticle ornamentation of leaf surface under SEM supports segregation of the former from the latter. B. praerupta, B. pearsonii, B. ovistipula, B. oshimensis and B. assamica have smooth cuticle in contrast to the verrucose cuticle of B. tridens, B. orientalis, B. himalayana, B. sumbavensis, B. sikkimensis and B. appendiculata. In addition B. imbricata with minutely verrucose and B. tricrenata with vermiculate to pseudo-reticulate pattern arranged centripetally at cell periphery and irregularly in the centre have been observed in both species. Acromastigum inasquilaterum, Metacalypogeia alternifolia, Calypogeia arguta and C. azurea have also been studied for their cuticle ornamentation.
Plants with mature sporophyte are found very rarely, however Lepidozia erosa, L. reptans, Kurzia pauciﬂora, Bazzania sikkimensis, B. tridens, B. orientalis and B. praerupta with ripe sporogonia have been investigated for their sporoderm architecture under SEM. Some peculiarities, like trispirate (to multispirate) elaters (in B. praerupta) and conﬂuent thickenings on the alternate longitudinal walls of the epidermal layer cells of the capsule wall (in B. orientalis) have been noticed in Bazzania for the ﬁrst time.
Phylogenetic considerations suggest that the Lepidoziaceae are older than the Calypogeiaceae. Primitive and advanced characters have been critically evaluated with a schematic representation of the evolutionary sequence within the Lepidoziineae.
Four maps showing the distribution of the representatives of the Lepidoziineae in India have also been provided.
A list of excluded species and one containing invalid names are added to prevent future confusion and easy understanding of the present-day Indian taxa of the suborder.
MATERIAL AND METHODS 16
SUBORD. LEPIDOZIINEAE SCHUST. 18
KEY TO THE INDIAN FAMILIES OF LEPIDOZIINEAE 20
FAMILY LEPIDOZIACEAE LIMPR. 21
KEY TO THE INDIAN SUBFAMILIES OF LEPIDOZIACEAE 23
SUBFAMILY LEPIDOZIOIDEAE LIMPR. 23
KEY TO THE INDIAN GENERA OF THE LEPIDOZIOIDEAE 24
LEPIDOZIA (DUMORT.) DUMORT. 25
TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS USED FOR SPECIES RECOGNITION 27
KEY TO THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEPIDOZIA 37
L. robusta St. 38
L. wallichiana Gott. 42
L. udarii Srivast. et al. 45
L. flexuosa Mitt. 47
L. minima St. 51
L. breuifolia Mitt. 53
L. stahlii St. 56
L. erosa St. 59
L. replans (L.) Dumort. 64
KURZIA v. MART. 71
SUBGEN. MICROLEPIDOZIA (SPR.) SCHUST. 72
SECTION MICROLEPIDOZIA (SPR.) SCHUST. 73
TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS USED FOR SPECIES RECOGNITION 74
KEY TO THE INDIAN SPECIES OF KURZIA 77
K. makinoana (St.) Grolle 81
K. tenerrima (Mitt. ex St.) Grolle 84
SUBFAMILY BAZZANIOIDEAE RODW. 86
KEY TO THE INDIAN GENERA OF THE BAZZANIOIDEAE 86
Dendrobazzania griffithiana (St.) Schust. et Schof. 87
BAZZANIA S.F. GRAY 89
TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS USED FOR SPECIES RECOGNITION 92
KEY TO THE INDIAN SPECIES OF BAZZANIA 102
B. assamica (St.) Hatt. 105
B. sumbauensis (Gott. ex St.) St. 107
B. himalayana (Mitt.) Schiffn. 111
B. oshimensis (St.) Horik. 114
B. orientalis (St.) Parihar 118
B. tridens (Reinw., Bl. et Nees) Trev. 121
B. appendiculata (Mitt.) Hatt. 128
B. sikkimensis (St.) Herz. 131
B. ouistipula (St.) Abeyw. 135
B. imbricata (Mitt.) Hatt. 139
B. tricrenata (Wahlenb.) Lindb. 143
B. pearsonii St. 148
B. praerupta (Reinw., Bl. et Nees) Trev. 151
ACROMASTIGUM EVANS 156
A. inacquilaterum (Lehm. et Lindenb.) Evans 158
FAMILY CALYPOGEIACEAE (K. MULL) H.W. ARN. 163
KEY TO THE INDIAN GENERA OF CALYPOGEIACEAE 165
METACALYPOGEIA (HATT.) INOUE 165
M. alternifolia (Nees) Grolle 166
CALYPOGELA RADDI 172
TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS USED FOR SPECIES RECOGNITION 175
KEY TO THE INDIAN SUBGENERA OF CALYPOGEIA 182
KEY TO INDIAN SPECIES OF SUBGENUS CALYPOGEIA 183
C. arguta Nees et Mont. 184
C. Iunata Mitt. 189
C. aeruginosa Mitt. 193
C. marginella Mitt. 196
C. fissa (L.) Raddi 197
C. azures Stotler et Crotz 201
SOME PHYLOGENETIC SPECULATIONS 208
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