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Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (International Edition)


By: David L Nelson (Author), Michael M Cox (Author)

1300 pages, b/w photos, colour & b/w illustrations, colour tables

W.H. Freeman & Co. Ltd

Hardback | Feb 2013 | Edition: 6 | #203654 | ISBN-13: 9781464109621
Availability: Usually dispatched within 48 hours
NHBS Price: £61.99 $76/€70 approx

About this book

The new sixth edition of this best-selling introduction to biochemistry maintains the clarity and coherence that so appeals to students whilst incorporating the very latest advances in the field, new worked examples and end of chapter problems and an improved artwork programme to highlight key processes and important lessons.

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Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

Authors Dave Nelson and Mike Cox combine the best of the laboratory and...

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1. The Foundations of Biochemistry
1.1 Cellular Foundations
1.2 Chemical Foundations
Box 1–1 Molecular Weight, Molecular Mass, and Their Correct Units
Box 1–2 Louis Pasteur and Optical Activity: In Vino, Veritas
1.3 Physical Foundations
Box 1–3 Entropy: Things Fall Apart
1.4 Genetic Foundations

2. Water
2.1 Weak Interactions in Aqueous Systems
2.2 Ionization of Water, Weak Acids, and Weak Bases
2.3 Buffering agains pH Changes in Biological Systems
Box 2-1 Medicine: On Being One's Own Rabbit (Don't Try This at Home!)
2.4 Water as a Reactant
2.5 The Fitness of Aqueous Environment for Living Organisms
3. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
3.1 Amino Acids
Box 3-1 Methods: Absorption of Light by Molecules: The Lambert-Beer Law
3.2 Peptides and Proteins
3.3 Working with Proteins
3.4 The Structure of Proteins: Primary Structure  
Box 3–2 Consensus Sequences and Sequence Logos

4. The Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins
4.1 Overview of Protein Structure
4.2 Protein Secondary Structure
Box 4–1 Methods: Knowing the Right Hand from the Left  
4.3 Protein Tertiary and Quaternary Structures
Box 4–2 Permanent Waving Is Biochemical Engineering
Box 4–3 Why Sailors, Explorers, and College Students Should Eat Their Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
Box 4–4 The Protein Data Bank
Box 4–5 Methods: Methods for Determining the Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protein
4.4 Protein Denaturation and Folding
Box 4–6 Medicine: Death by Misfolding: The Prion Diseases

5. Protein Function  
5.1 Reversible Binding of a Protein to a Ligand: Oxygen-Binding Proteins
Box 5–1 Medicine: Carbon Monoxide: A Stealthy Killer
5.2 Complementary Interactions between Proteins and Ligands: The Immune System and Immunoglobulins
5.3 Protein Interactions Modulated by Chemical Energy: Actin, Myosin, and Molecular Motors  

6. Enzymes
6.1 An Introduction to Enzymes
6.2 How Enzymes Work
6.3 Enzyme Kinetics as an Approach to Understanding Mechanism
Box 6–1 Transformations of the Michaelis-Menten Equation: The Double-Reciprocal Plot
Box 6–2 Kinetic Tests for Determining Inhibition Mechanisms
Box 6–3 Curing African Sleeping Sickness with a Biochemical Trojan Horse
6.4 Examples of Enzymatic Reactions
6.5 Regulatory Enzymes

7. Carbohydrates and Glycobiology
7.1 Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
Box 7–1 Medicine: Blood Glucose Measurements in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes
Box 7–2 Sugar Is Sweet, and So Are . . . a Few Other Things
7.2 Polysaccharides
7.3 Glycoconjugates: Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids
7.4 Carbohydrates as Informational Molecules: The Sugar Code  
7.5 Working with Carbohydrates  

8. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids  
8.1 Some Basics
8.2 Nucleic Acid Structure
8.3 Nucleic Acid Chemistry
8.4 Other Functions of Nucleotides  

9.  DNA-Based Information Technologies
9.1 Studying Genes and Their Products
Box 9–1 A Powerful Tool in Forensic Medicine
9.2 Using DNA-Based Methods to Understand Protein Function
9.3 Genomics and the Human Story
Box 9–2 Medicine: Personalized Genomic Medicine
Box 9–3 Getting to Know the Neanderthals  

10. Lipids
10.1 Storage Lipids
10.2 Structural Lipids in Membranes
Box 10–1 Medicine: Abnormal Accumulations of Membrane Lipids: Some Inherited Human Diseases
10.3 Lipids as Signals, Cofactors, and Pigments  
10.4 Working with Lipids

11. Biological Membranes and Transport  
11.1 The Composition and Architecture of Membranes
11.2 Membrane Dynamics
11.3 Solute Transport across Membranes
Box 11–1 Medicine: Defective Glucose and Water Transport in Two Forms of Diabetes
Box 11–2 Medicine: A Defective Ion Channel in Cystic Fibrosis

12. Biosignaling
12.1 General Features of Signal Transduction
Box 12–1 Methods Scatchard Analysis Quantifies the Receptor-Ligand Interaction
12.2 Protein–Coupled Receptors and Second Messengers
Box 12–2 Medicine: G Proteins: Binary Switches in Health and Disease
Box 12–3 Methods: FRET: Biochemistry Visualized in a Living Cell
12.3 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
12.4 Receptor Guanylyl Cyclases, cGMP, and Protein Kinase G
12.5 Multivalent Adaptor Proteins and Membrane Rafts
12.6 Gated Ion Channels
12.7 Integrins: Bidirectional Cell Adhesion Receptors
12.8 Regulation of Transcription by Nuclear Hormone Receptors
12.9 Signaling in Microorganisms and Plants
12.10 Sensory Transduction in Vision, Olfaction, and Gustation
Box 12–4 Medicine: Color Blindness: John Dalton’s Experiment from the Grave
12.11 Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Protein Kinases
12.12 Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Programmed Cell Death
Box 12–5 Medicine: Development of Protein Kinase Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment

13. Bioenergetics and Biochemical Reaction Types
13.1 Bioenergetics and Thermodynamics
13.2 Chemical Logic and Common Biochemical Reactions
13.3 Phosphoryl Group Transfers and ATP
Box 13–1 Firefly Flashes: Glowing Reports of ATP
13.4 Biological Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

14. Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway
14.1 Glycolysis
Box 14–1 Medicine: High Rate of Glycolysis in Tumors Suggests Targets for Chemotherapy and Facilitates Diagnosis  
14.2 Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis
14.3 Fates of Pyruvate under Anaerobic Conditions: Fermentation
Box 14–2 Athletes, Alligators, and Coelacanths: Glycolysis at Limiting Concentrations of Oxygen
Box 14–3 Ethanol Fermentations: Brewing Beer and Producing Biofuels
14.4 Gluconeogenesis
14.5 Pentose Phosphate Pathway of Glucose Oxidation
Box 14–4 Medicine: Why Pythagoras Wouldn’t Eat Falafel: Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

15. Principles of Metabolic Regulation
15.1 Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
15.2 Analysis of Metabolic Control  
Box 15–1 Methods: Metabolic Control Analysis: Quantitative Aspects
15.3 Coordinated Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
Box 15–2 Isozymes: Different Proteins That Catalyze the Same Reaction
Box 15–3 Medicine: Genetic Mutations That Lead to Rare Forms of Diabetes
15.4 The Metabolism of Glycogen in Animals
Box 15–4 Carl and Gerty Cori: Pioneers in Glycogen Metabolism and Disease
15.5 Coordinated Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis and Breakdown

16. The Citric Acid Cycle
16.1 Production of Acetyl-CoA (Activated Acetate)
16.2 Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle
Box 16–1 Moonlighting Enzymes: Proteins with More Than One Job  
Box 16–2  Synthases and Synthetases; Ligases and Lyases; Kinases, Phosphatases, and Phosphorylases: Yes, the Names Are Confusing!
Box 16–3 Citrate: A Symmetric Molecule That Reacts Asymmetrically
16.3 Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle
16.4 The Glyoxylate Cycle

17. Fatty Acid Catabolism
17.1 Digestion, Mobilization, and Transport of Fats
17.2 Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Box 17–1 Fat Bears Carry Out ? Oxidation in Their Sleep
Box 17–2 Coenzyme B12: A Radical Solution to a Perplexing Problem  
17.3 Ketone Bodies  

18. Amino Acid Oxidation and the Production of Urea
18.1 Metabolic Fates of Amino Groups
18.2 Nitrogen Excretion and the Urea Cycle
Box 18–1 Medicine: Assays for Tissue Damage
18.3 Pathways of Amino Acid Degradation
Box 18–2 Medicine:Scientific Sleuths Solve a Murder Mystery  

19.  Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation
19.1 Electron-Transfer Reactions in Mitochondria
Box 19–1 Hot, Stinking Plants and Alternative Respiratory Pathways  
19.2 ATP Synthesis
Box 19–2 Methods: Atomic Force Microscopy to Visualize Membrane Proteins  
19.3 Regulation of Oxidative Phosphorylation
19.4 Mitochondria in Thermogenesis, Steroid Synthesis, and Apoptosis
19.5 Mitochondrial Genes: Their Origin and the Effects of Mutations  
Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy
19.6 General Features of Photophosphorylation
19.7 Light Absorption
19.8 The Central Photochemical Event: Light-Driven Electron Flow  
19.9 ATP Synthesis by Photophosphorylation
19.10 The Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

20. Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Plants and Bacteria  
20.1 Photosynthetic Carbohydrate Synthesis
20.2 Photorespiration and the C4 and CAM Pathways
Box 20–1 Will Genetic Engineering of Photosynthetic Organisms Increase Their Efficiency?
20.3 Biosynthesis of Starch and Sucrose
20.4 Synthesis of Cell Wall Polysaccharides: Plant Cellulose and Bacterial Peptidoglycan
20.5 Integration of Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Plant Cell  

21. Lipid Biosynthesis
21.1 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids
Box 21–1 Medicine: Mixed-Function Oxidases, Cytochrome P-450s and Drug Overdoses
21.2 Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols
21.3 Biosynthesis of Membrane Phospholipids
21.4 Cholesterol, Steroids, and Isoprenoids: Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Transport  
Box 21–2 Medicine: ApoE Alleles Predict Incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease
Box 21–3 Medicine: The Lipid Hypothesis and the Development of Statins

22. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids, Nucleotides, and Related Molecules
22.1 Overview of Nitrogen Metabolism
Box 22–1 Unusual Lifestyles of the Obscure but Abundant
22.2 Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
22.3 Molecules Derived from Amino Acids
Box 22–2 On Kings and Vampires
22.4 Biosynthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides

23. Hormonal Regulation and Integration of Mammalian Metabolism  
23.1 Hormones: Diverse Structures for Diverse Functions
Box 23–1 Medicine: How Is a Hormone Discovered? The Arduous Path to Purified Insulin
23.2 Tissue-Specific Metabolism: The Division of Labor
Box 23–2 Creatine and Creatine Kinase: Invaluable Diagnostic Aids and the Muscle Builder’s Friends
23.3 Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism
23.4 Obesity and the Regulation of Body Mass
23.5 Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

24. Genes and Chromosomes
24.1 Chromosomal Elements
24.2 DNA Supercoiling
Box 24–1 Medicine: Curing Disease by Inhibiting Topoisomerases
24.3 The Structure of Chromosomes
Box 24–2 Medicine: Epigenetics, Nucleosome Structure, and Histone Variants

25. DNA Metabolism
25.1 DNA Replication
25.2 DNA Repair
Box 25–1 Medicine: DNA Repair and Cancer
25.3 DNA Recombination
Box 25–2 Medicine:Why Proper Chromosomal Segregation Matters

26. RNA Metabolism
26.1 DNA-Dependent Synthesis of RNA
Box 26–1 Methods: RNA Polymerase Leaves Its Footprint on a Promoter  
26.2 RNA Processing  
26.3 RNA-Dependent Synthesis of RNA and DNA  
Box 26–2 Medicine: Fighting AIDS with Inhibitors of HIV Reverse Transcriptase
Box 26–3 Methods: The SELEX Method for Generating RNA Polymers with New Functions
Box 26–4 An Expanding RNA Universe Filled with TUF RNAs

27. Protein Metabolism
27.1 The Genetic Code
Box 27–1 Exceptions That Prove the Rule: Natural Variations in the Genetic Code
27.2 Protein Synthesis
Box 27–2 From an RNA World to a Protein World
Box 27–3 Natural and Unnatural Expansion of the Genetic Code
Box 27–4 Induced Variation in the Genetic Code: Nonsense Suppression  
27.3 Protein Targeting and Degradation

28. Regulation of Gene Expression  
28.1 Principles of Gene Regulation  
28.2 Regulation of Gene Expression in Bacteria
28.3 Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Box 28–1 Of Fins, Wings, Beaks, and Things

Appendix A Common Abbreviations in the Biochemical Research Literature
Appendix B Abbreviated Solutions to Problems


New to this edition:

New Art
The new edition features a dramatically re-invisioned art program that recasts nearly every figure to make them exceptionally strong learning tools:
• New renditions of classic figures are now easier to interpret and learn from
• Figures that pair molecular models with schematic cartoons, generated specifically for this book, now use consistent shapes and color schemes
• Figures of complex processes with numbered, annotated steps now place the descriptive text in the figure itself, not in the caption
• Summary figures help the student to keep the big picture in mind while learning the specifics.
Updated Genomics
Chapter 9, DNA-Based Information Technologies, now incorporates the latest genomic methods. Numerous other chapters have been updated to reflect advances gained from new methods, such as:
• Next generation DNA sequencing, including the Illumina and 454 sequencing methods and platforms (Chapter 9)
• Applications of genomics, including the use of haplotypes to trace human migrations and phylogenetics to locate human genes associated with inherited disease conditions (Chapter 9)
• Forensic genotyping and the use of personalized genomics in medicine (Chapter 9)
New Science
Every chapter has been thoroughly revised and updated to include both the most important advances in biochemistry and information needed in a modern biochemistry text. Among the new and updated topics in this edition are:
• Prebiotic evolution, black smokers, and the RNA world (Chapter 1)
• Intrinsically disordered proteins (Chapter 4)
• Transition state analogs and irreversible inhibition (Chapter 6)
• Blood coagulation pathways in the context of enzymatic regulation (Chapter 6)
• Asymmetric lipid distribution in bilayer (Chapter 11)
• Role of BAR superfamily proteins in membrane curvature (Chapter 11)
• Scaffold proteins (AKAPS and others) and their regulatory roles (Chapter 12)
• Reactive oxygen species as by-products and as signals (Chapter 19)
• Structure and function of the oxygen-evolving metal cluster in PSII (Chapter 19)
• Formation, transport of lipoproteins in mammals, including the roles of SREBP, SCAP, Insig in cholesterol regulation (Chapter 21)
• Integration of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by PPARs, SREBPs, mTORC1, and LXR (Chapters 21, 23)
• Creatine phosphate and the role of creatine kinase in moving ATP to cytosol (Chapter 23)
• Microbial symbionts in the gut and their influence on energy metabolism and adipogenesis (Chapter 23)
• Nucleosomes: their modification and positioning and higher order chromatin structure (Chapter 24)
• DNA polymerases and homologous recombination (Chapter 25)
• Loading eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Chapter 26)
• Mutation-resistant nature of the genetic code (Chapter 27)
• Ribosome structure and the initiation of translation in eukaryotes (Chapter 27)
• DNA looping, combinatorial control, chromatin remodeling, and positive regulation in eukaryotes (Chapter 28)
• Regulation of the initiation of transcription in eukaryotes (Chapter 28)
• Steroid-binding nuclear receptors (Chapter 28)
New Biochemical Methods
New methods or updates described in this edition include:
• Modern Sanger protein sequencing and mass spectrometry (Chapter 3)
• Mass spectrometry applied to proteomics, glycomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics (Chapters 3, 7, 10)
• Oligosaccharide microarrays to explore protein-oligosaccharide interactions and the “carbohydrate code” (Chapter 7)
• Modern genomic methods (Chapter 9)
• Genetic engineering of photosynthetic organisms (Chapter 20)
• Use of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to visualize tumors and brown adipose tissue (Chapter 23)
• Development of bacterial strains with altered genetic codes for site-specific insertion of novel amino acids into proteins (Chapter 27)
New Medical Applications
This icon is used throughout the book to denote material of special medical interest. Many sections explore what we know about the molecular mechanisms of disease. A few of the new or revised medical applications in this edition are:
• Box 4-6, Death by Misfolding: the Prior Diseases (Chapter 4)
• Paganini and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (Chapter 4)
• HIV protease inhibitors and how basic enzymatic principles influenced their design (Chapter 6)
• Blood coagulation cascade and hemophilia (Chapter 6)
• Curing African Sleeping Sickness with an enzymatic suicide inhibitor (Chapter 6)
• How researchers locate human genes involved in inherited diseases (Chapter 9)
• Multidrug resistance transporters and their importance in clinical medicine (Chapter 11)
• Multistep progression to colorectal cancer (Chapter 12)
• Cholesterol metabolism, cardiovascular disease, and mechanism of plaque formation in atherosclerosis (Chapter 21)
• P450 and drug interactions (Chapter 21)
• HMG-CoA reductase (Chapter 21) and Box 21–3, The Lipid Hypothesis and the Development of Statins
• Box 24–1, Curing Disease by Inhibiting Topoisomerases, describing the use of topoisomerase inhibitors in the treatment of bacterial infections and cancer, including  material on ciprofloxacin (the antibiotic effective for anthrax)
• Stem cells (Chapter 28)
Special Theme: Understanding Metabolism through Obesity and Diabetes
The urgent world health issue of diabetes provides a defining theme for the book’s chapters on metabolism and its control.  Sections and boxes highlighting the interplay of metabolism, obesity, and diabetes are:
• Untreated Diabetes Produces Life-Threatening Acidosis (Chapter 2)
• Box 7–1, Blood Glucose Measurements in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes, introducing hemoglobin glycation and AGEs and their role in the pathology of advanced diabetes
• Glucose Uptake Is Deficient in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Chapter 14)
• Ketone Bodies Are Overproduced in Diabetes and during Starvation (Chapter 17)
• Some Mutations in Mitochondrial Genomes Cause Disease (Chapter 19)
• Diabetes Can Result from Defects in the Mitochondria of Pancreatic ? Cells (Chapter 19)
• Adipose Tissue Generates Glycerol 3-phosphate by Glyceroneogenesis (Chapter 21)
• Diabetes Mellitus Arises from Defects in Insulin Production or Action (Chapter 23)
• Section 23.4, Obesity and the Regulation of Body Mass, includes a new discussion of the regulatory roles of TORC1 in regulating cell growth
• Section 23.5, Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes, discusses the role of ectopic lipids and inflammation in the development of insulin resistance, and the management of type 2 diabetes with exercise, diet, and medication
Special Theme: Evolution
Evolution is presented as a foundational principle of biochemistry throughout this edition, including:
• Section 1.5, Evolutionary Foundations, discusses how life may have evolved and canvasses some of the early milestones in the evolution of eukaryotic cells (Chapter 1)
• Genome Sequencing Informs Us about Our Humanity (Chapter 9)
• Genome Comparisons Help Locate Genes Involved in Disease (Chapter 9)
• Genome Sequences Inform Us About Our Past and Provide Opportunities for the Future (Chapter 9)
• BOX 9–3, Getting to Know the Neanderthals (Chapter 9)
• ABC Transporters Use ATP to Drive the Active Transport of a Wide Variety of Substrates (Chapter 11)
• Signaling Systems of Plants Have Some of the Same Components Used by Microbes and Mammals (Chapter 12)
• The ?-Oxidation Enzymes of Different Organelles Have Diverged during Evolution (Chapter 17)
• Section 19.10, The Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis
• Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Evolved from Endosymbiotic Bacteria (Chapter 19)
• Photosystems I and II Evolved from Bacterial Photosystems (Chapter 19)
• RNA Synthesis Offers Important Clues to Biochemical Evolution (Chapter 26)
• Box 27–1, Exceptions That Prove the Rule: Natural Variations in the Genetic Code (Chapter 27)
• Box 27–2, From an RNA World to a Protein World (Chapter 27)
• Box 28-1, Of Fins, Wings, Beaks, and Things (Chapter 28)
Lehninger Teaching Hallmarks
Students encountering biochemistry for the first time often have difficulty with two key aspects of the course: approaching quantitative problems and drawing on their previous studies of organic chemistry. Those same students must also learn a complex language, with conventions that are often unstated. As always, Principles of Biochemistry helps students cope with these challenges:
Focus on Chemical Logic

    Section 13.2, Chemical logic and common biochemical reactions, discusses the common biochemical reaction types that underlie all metabolic reactions, helping student to connect organic chemistry with biochemistry.
    NEW chemical logic figures highlight the conservation of mechanism and illustrate patterns that make learning pathways easier. Chemical logic figures are provided for each of the central metabolic pathways: glycolysis (Fig 14-3), citric acid cycle (Fig. 16-7), and fatty acid oxidation (Fig 17-9).
    Mechanism figures feature step-by-step descriptions to help students understand the reaction process. These figures use a consistent set of conventions introduced and explained in detail with the first enzyme mechanism encountered.

Problem-Solving Tools

    In-text Worked Examples take students through some of the most difficult equations step by step. New worked examples appear in Chapters 1, 2, and 19.
    More than 600 end-of-chapter problems (over 75 of them new) give students further opportunity to practice what they have learned.
    Data Analysis Problems (one at the end of each chapter),  contributed by Brian White of the University of Massachusetts–Boston, encourage students interpret data from the literature.

Key Conventions
The text highlights clear statements of many assumptions and conventions that students are often expected to assimilate without being told (for example, peptide sequences are written from amino-to carboxyl-terminal end, left to right; nucleotide sequences are written from 5' to 3' end, left to right).

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David L. Nelson is Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He is also the Academic Program Director for university's Institute for Cross-college Biology Education.

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