Algae are present in most fresh waters, including spring waters. Springs are the simplest of natural laboratories for studying interactions between a limited number of species and environmental factors, and they are refugia for a number of rare and declining species.
Species Composition and Distribution of Diatom Assemblages in Spring Waters from Various Geological Formations in Southern Poland provides information on the ecology and distribution of 174 abundant and common diatoms in spring waters and on 30 species that are poorly known and rarely reported. More than 2000 micrographs (including over 1000 SEM images) illustrate morphological characteristics of the species. The new genus Crenotia and three new species (Eunotia chelmickii, E. oligotraphenta and Staurophora lanceolata) are described and five new combinations are introduced.
The species treated in this book were collected from 62 natural springs and five borehole-originated outflows characterized by heterogeneous geological, hydrological conditions; natural and affected by human impact (urbanization, agriculture). Diluted, calcium-rich but nutrient-poor, eutrophic, saline, carbonated or sulfide-rich springs were used as basis for the study. The key factors controlling species distribution in spring waters are thoroughly investigated and discussed.
Species Composition and Distribution of Diatom Assemblages in Spring Waters from Various Geological Formations in Southern Poland is a valuable source of information for biologists interested in bio-geographic diatom distribution and in the ecological effects of human interference and natural conditions on diatom distribution.
1 Abstract 6
2 Introduction 7
3 Study area 9
3.1 Inner Carpathians (Central Western Carpathians) 12
3.2 Outer Carpathians (Carpathian Flysch) 12
3.2.1 Beskid Sadecki, Beskid Niski 12
3.2.2 Roznowskie Foothills 21
3.3 Slasko-Krakowska Upland (Krakowsko-Czestochowska
3.4 Malopolska Upland (Nidzianska Basin) 22
4 Methods 22
4.1 Collection and preparation of material 23
4.2 Identification of diatoms 24
4.3 Data analysis 25
5 Results 28
5.1 Environmental variables 28
5.1.1 Summary of spring characteristics for geographic units 29
5.1.2 Diatom assemblages in geographic units 36
5.2 Numerical analysis 41
5.2.1 Cluster analysis 41
5.2.2 Ordination results 44
5.2.3 Estimation of environmental optima and tolerance ranges for
45 diatom species 50
5.3 Species of special interest – species complexes, indicator
species, rare taxa, geographic elements 54
6 Discussion 55
7 Taxonomy, ecology and distribution 72
8 Acknowledgments 140
9 References 141
10 Plates 157
11 Index of diatom names 431
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