Books  Environmental Science  Climate & Climate Change 

Soil Emission of Nitrous Oxide and Its Mitigation

By: David Ussiri (Author), Rattan Lal (Author)

395 pages, 12 colour & 12 b/w illustrations, 29 tables

Springer-Verlag

Hardback | Nov 2012 | #205841 | ISBN-13: 9789400753631
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £104.50 $132/€124 approx

About this book

Nitrous oxide gas is a long-lived relatively active greenhouse gas (GHG) with an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 120 years, and heat trapping effects about 310 times more powerful than carbon dioxide per molecule basis. It contributes about 6% of observed global warming. Nitrous oxide is not only a potent GHG, but it also plays a significant role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Soil Emission of Nitrous Oxide and Its Mitigation describes the anthropogenic sources of N2O with major emphasis on agricultural activities. It summarizes an overview of global cycling of N and the role of nitrous oxide on global warming and ozone depletion, and then focus on major source, soil borne nitrous oxide emissions.

The spatial-temporal variation of soil nitrous oxide fluxes and underlying biogeochemical processes are described, as well as approaches to quantify fluxes of N2O from soils. Mitigation strategies to reduce the emissions, especially from agricultural soils, and fertilizer nitrogen sources are described in detail in the latter part of Soil Emission of Nitrous Oxide and Its Mitigation.


Contents

CHAPTER 1: THE ROLE OF NITROUS OXIDE ON CLIMATE CHANGE
1. Introduction
2. Greenhouse effect
3. Climate forcing
4. Nitrous oxide emissions
5. Conclusions
CHAPTER 2: GLOBAL NITROGEN CYCLE
1. Introduction
2. Discovery of N cycle: Historical perspective
3. Global N inventory
4. N fixation
5. Nitrogen cycling
6. Conclusions
CHAPTER 3: FORMATION AND RELEASE OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
1. Introduction
2. Nitrification
2.2. Heterotrophic nitrification
2.3. Chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation
3. Denitrification
3.1. Respiratory denitrification
3.2. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium
3.3. Chemodenitrification
3.4. Nitrifier denitrification
4. N2O production by nitrification and denitrification
5. Conclusions
CHAPTER 4: NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES MEASUREMENT
1. Introduction
2. Measurement methods
2.1. Flux chambers
2.2. Sub-surface method
2.3. Mass balance method
2.4. Micrometeorological approaches
2.5. Comparison of chamber and micrometeorological approaches
3. Modeling approaches
3.1. Empirical models
3.2. Process-based models
4. Future research priorities
5. Conclusions
CHAPTER 5: GLOBAL SOURCES OF NITROUS OXIDE
1. Introduction
2. Natural sources
2.1. Soils under natural vegetation
2.2. Aquatic Sources
2.3. Wetlands
2.4. Riparian zones
3. Anthropogenic sources
3.1. Description of the sources
3.2. Agriculture
3.3. Indirect N2O emission
3.4. Biomass burning
3.5. Tropical forest land conversion
3.6. Fossil fuel burning
4. Conclusion
5. Researchable issues
CHAPTER 6: LAND USE AND LAND MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES
1. Introduction
2. Cropland
2.1. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils
2.2. Legumes and N2O emissions|
2.3. Conversion of forest and grassland to cropland
2.4. Land management and N2O emission
3. Grassland
3.1. Nitrogen inputs to grasslands
4. Forest
4.1. Factors affecting N2O emissions from forest soils
4.2. Clear-cutting and N2O emissions
5. Factors controlling N2O production from soils
5.1. Moisture and aeration
5.2. Temperature
5.3. Soluble and mineralizable carbon
5.4. Soil pH and salinity
5.5. Soil nitrogen
5.6. Other nutrients
5.7. Conclusions
CHAPTER 7: NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM RICE FIELDS
1. Introduction
2. Literature Survey on Nitrous oxide Emission from Rice Cultivation
3. Types of Rice Ecosystems
3.1. Irrigated rice ecosystem
3.2. Lowland rainfed rice ecosystem
3.3. Upland rice ecosystem
3.4. Deepwater or flood-prone rice ecosystem
4. Rice Soils
4.1. Nitrogen transformation in flooded soils
4.2. Processes contributing to nitrous oxide emission from rice fields
4.3. Assessment of special conditions driving N2O emission in rice fields
4.4. Factors affecting N2O emission from rice fields
4.5. Sampling techniques for measuring N2O fluxes from rice fields
4.6. Problems of sampling and quantification of N2O from rice fields
4.7. Effects of land management practices in non-rice growing season on N2O emission from rice fields
5. Mitigation Options for N2O Emissions from Rice fields
6. Conclusions
CHAPTER 8: NITROUS OXIDE SOURCES AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES
1. Introduction
2. Anthropogenic sources of nitrous oxide
2.1. Agriculture
2.2. Industrial processes
2.3. Other sources
3. Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from cropland
3.1. Cropland
3.2. Fertilizer use and crop yields enhancement
3.3. Water management
3.4. Organic and wetland soils
3.5. Biochar application
3.6. Indirect nitrous oxide emission from cropland
3.7. Role of plant breeding and biotechnology advances
4. Conclusions
5. Research needs
CHAPTER 9: MITIGATION OPTIONS FOR LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE LANDS
1. Introduction
2. Nitrogen input to grazed pasture
2.1 Biological N fixation
2.2 Animal excreta deposition in pasturelands
2.3 Animal manures and effluent application in pasturelands
2.4 Inorganic N fertilizers application in pasturelands
3. Nitrogen transformations and loss from pasture soils
4. Nitrous oxide emissions from livestock management system
4.1 Approaches to reduce gaseous nitrogen emission from livestock production systems
5. Conclusions
CHAPTER 10: THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER MANAGEMENT IN MITIGATING NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS
1. Introduction
2. Nitrogen use efficiency
2.1. Approaches to improve nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture
3. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers
3.1. Slow and controlled released fertilizers
3.2. Stabilized fertilizers
3.3. Advantages and disadvantages of enhanced efficiency fertilizers
4. Precision fertilization
5. Conclusions
CHAPTER 11: CONCLUSION: TOWARDS MANAGING AGRICULTURAL SOILS FOR MITIGATING N2O EMISSIONS
1. Introduction
2. Mitigation options
2.2. Management of nitrogen under animal agriculture
2.3. Barriers of achieving nitrogen efficiency
3. Policy issues on agricultural GHG mitigation
4. Research needs
5. Recommended practices for reducing N2O emission


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