Books  Environmental Science  Waste Management & Remediation 

Geosynthetic Clay Liners for Waste Containment Facilities

By: Abdelmalek Bouazza (Author), John J Bowders (Author)

254 pages, 166 b/w illustrations, 49 tables

CRC Press

Hardback | Nov 2009 | #205979 | ISBN-13: 9780415467339
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £107.00 $135/€127 approx

About this book

Increasingly stringent regulation of pollution and waste production worldwide drives the need to isolate contaminants that pose a threat to human and environmental health by using engineered barrier systems involving the use of low permeable materials. Over the past two decades, geosynthetic clay liners have gained widespread acceptance for use in such barrier systems. They are often used as a component of primary and secondary base liners or final cover systems in municipal solid-waste landfills as well as in regulated industrial storage and mining waste-disposal facilities.

Geosynthetic Clay Liners for Waste Containment Facilities gives a comprehensive and authoritative review of the current state of practice on geosynthetic clay liners in waste containments. It provides an insight into individual materials (bentonite and the associated geosynthetics) and the manufacturing processes. This is followed by the coverage of important topics such as hydraulic conductivity, chemical compatibility, contaminant transport, gas migration, shear strength and slope stability, and field performance.


Contents

1. Background and overview of geosynthetic clay liners

    Introduction
    Background
    Bentonite
    Geotextiles
    Geomembranes
    Other associated materials
    GCL manufacturing
    Current GCL products
    Nonreinforced GCLs
    Reinforced GCLs
    Test methods and properties
    Physical properties
    Hydraulic properties
    Mechanical properties
    Endurance properties
    Generic specification for GCLs
    Equivalency issues
    Summary
    Acknowledgements
    References

2. Durability and lifetime of the geotextile fibers of geosynthetic clay liners

    Introduction and background
    Structure and degradation of polymer fibers
    Polymers used for GCL fiber reinforcement
    Fiber configuration of GCL reinforcement
    Oxidative effects on polymer structure
    Tertiary carbon atoms
    Crystallinity
    Orientation
    Antioxidants depletion mechanisms
    Chemical reactions
    Physical loss
    Specific surface area
    External environmental effects on oxidation
    Energy level
    Oxygen concentration
    Liquid chemistry
    Applied fiber stresses
    Annealing
    Durability evaluation and specification
    Performance testing
    Incubation methods for subsequent index testing
    Index test methods and procedures
    Geomembranes and geofilm
    Summary and conclusions
    Polymer structure, degradation and stabilization
    Laboratory performance incubation and testing
    Index testing with a suggested specification
    Conclusion and recommendation
    Acknowledgement
    References

3. Mineralogy and engineering properties of Bentonite

    Introduction
    Mineralogy of smectite
    Crystalline structure
    Morphology and fabric
    Layer charge
    Exchangeable cations
    Sodium activation of bentonites
    Adsorption and swelling behavior
    Short-range hydration mechanisms
    Crystalline and osmotic swelling regimes
    Crystalline swelling
    Osmotic swelling
    Engineering properties and their measurement
    Mineralogical analysis
    Cation exchange capacity
    Surface area
    Particle and granule size distribution
    Water content
    Swell index
    pH, electrical conductivity and carbonate content
    Fluid loss
    Closing remarks
    References

4. Hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners

    Geosynthetic clay liners in bottom liners and top covers
    Definitions
    Hydraulic conductivity
    Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity
    Permittivity
    Intrinsic permeability
    Hydraulic conductivity testing
    Types of permeameters
    Critical issues
    Intact GCLs
    Why do GCLs provide extremely low levels of hydraulic conductivity?
    Hydraulic conductivity of different types of GCLs
    Testing conditions
    Overlapping GCLs and other special situations
    Overlapping GCLs
    Durability against environmental effects
    Chemical compatibility
    Clay-chemical and bentonite-chemical interactions
    Consideration of the testing conditions
    Effects of inorganic chemicals – concentration and valence of cations
    Effects of waste leachates
    Effect of the sequence of permeants
    Modified bentonites
    Acknowledgments
    References

5. Contaminant transport through GCL-based liner systems

    Introduction
    Modeling contaminant transport through GCLs
    Advection
    Diffusion
    Sorption
    Establishing diffusion and sorption parameters for GCLs
    Experimental procedures and data interpretation
    Specified volume diffusion (SVD) test: Inorganic contaminants
    Constant stress diffusion (CSD) apparatus: Inorganic contaminants
    Volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion testing
    Factors influencing diffusion and sorption coefficients
    Effect of eB on diffusion coefficient: Inorganic contaminants
    Effect of type of GCL manufacture on inorganic diffusion coefficients
    Different types of dissolved contaminants in contact with the GCL
    Inorganic contaminants
    Organic contaminants
    Effect of temperature on volatile organic compound diffusion and
    sorption coefficients
    Constant stress vs specified volume diffusion testing
    Summary of diffusion and sorption coefficients to use for preliminary designs
    Contaminant migration assessments of GCL liner systems
    Equivalency of GCL and CCL liner systems
    Assessing GCL/CCL equivalency for municipal solid waste landfills: Example
    Conclusions
    References

6. Chemico-osmosis and solute transport through Geosynthetic clay liners

    Introduction
    Thermodynamics of irreversible processes
    Experimental data
    Physical interpretation of transport parameters
    Role played by osmotic phenomena in contaminant transport through GCLs
    Conclusions
    References

7. Gas permeability of geosynthetic clay liners

    Introduction
    Background
    Gas transport due to advection
    Gas permeameter
    Gas permeability
    Effect of moisture content
    Effect of hydration and desiccation
    Effect of wet-dry cycles and ion exchange
    Conclusions

8. Internal and interface shear strength of geosynthetic clay liners

    Introduction
    Materials
    GCL reinforcement types
    Geomembrane texturing types
    GCL Shear strength testing equipment
    Shear strength testing alternatives
    Specimen size for the direct shear device
    GCL specimen confinement for the direct shear device
    Normal and shear load application for the direct shear device
    Testing procedures
    Moisture conditioning
    Shearing procedures
    GCL Internal shear strength
    Shear stress-displacement behavior
    Preliminary shear strength overview
    Variables affecting GCL internal shear strength
    Effect of normal stress
    GCL Reinforcement
    Moisture conditioning
    Shear displacement rate
    GCL internal shear strength variability
    GCL-GM Interface shear strength
    Shear stress-displacement behavior
    Preliminary GCL-GM interface shear strength overview
    Variables affecting GCL internal shear strength
    Normal stress effects
    Effects of GCL reinforcement type and GM polymer
    Effect of GM texturing
    Moisture conditioning
    Shear displacement rate
    GCL internal shear strength variability
    Laboratory and field shear strength comparisons
    Conclusions
    References

9. Slope stability with geosynthetic clay liners

    Introduction
    Methods of analysis
    Simplified wedge procedures
    Possible failure surfaces
    Representative cross-sections and three-dimensional geometries
    Effective normal stresses
    Displacement and strain compatibility
    Seismic loads
    Design criteria
    Design shear strength for GCLs
    Unconsolidated versus consolidated bentonite
    Undrained versus drained shear
    Peak versus residual shear strength
    Internal versus interface shear strength
    Summary of design shear strength
    Approaches to mitigate stability problems
    Flattening slope
    Buttressing slope
    Reinforcing slope
    Reducing fluid pressures
    Replacing weak shear surfaces
    Reducing consequences of failure
    Design examples
    Example cover slope
    Design check for base case
    Design check for conservative and extreme cases
    Example base liner slope
    Design check for final closure geometry
    Design check for interim waste filling geometry
    Example liner construction
    Conclusions
    References

10. Hydrologic performance of final covers containing

    Introduction
    Covers relying solely on a GCL
    Georgswerder study in Germany
    Esch-Belval study in Luxembourg
    Aurach study in Germany
    Wisconsin study in USA
    Covers with a GCL-composite barrier
    Wisconsin study in USA
    California study in USA
    Oregon study in USA
    Practical implications
    Cation exchange and hydraulic conductivity
    Promoting hydration and preventing dehydration
    Conditions precluding cation exchange and increases in hydraulic conductivity
    Recommended usage of GCLs in final covers
    Acknowledgement
    References

11. Oxygen diffusion through geosynthetic clay liners

    Introduction
    Background
    Oxygen diffusion measurement
    Oxygen diffusion coefficient
    Concluding remarks
    References

12. Field observations of GCL behaviour

    Introduction
    GCL performance in composite liner systems
    Case histories of field performance
    Physical integrity
    Containment capability
    Conclusions
    References


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