Books  Evolutionary Biology  Human Evolution & Anthropology 

Auxology: Studying Human Growth and Development

By: Michael Hermanussen (Editor)

324 pages, 283 colour & b/w photos and colour illustrations, 89 colour tables

Schweizerbart Science Publishers

Hardback | Feb 2013 | #207733 | ISBN-13: 9783510652785
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £55.99 $71/€66 approx

About this book

Auxology: Studying Human Growth and Development is a comprehensive description of human physical growth and development (Auxology) with contributions by 56 internationally reputed experts. The entire spectrum of basic and advanced information on growth tracking, growth prediction, short-term-, catch-up-and rapid growth, nutritional and social factors influencing human growth, and issues related to preventive health care, growth in ethnic minorities and migrants, and growth in developing countries is presented.

Auxology: Studying Human Growth and Development is generously illustrated by 283 colour figures and 89 comprehensive tables. The text also introduces new mathematical approaches to growth modelling and provides practical information on how to use and interpret growth charts.Current national references for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference for various countries (US, ARG, BRA, CAN, IND, BEL, GER, IT, NL, PL, SW, SWI, TUR, UK, WHO) are provided, as are growth references for twins, preterm infantsand syndrome specific growth charts for clinical purposes.

Auxology: Studying Human Growth and Development is of greatest interest to all pediatricians, to medical students and students of human biology, health workers, nutritionists, medical staff and professionals interested in child and adolescent growth and development.


Contents

1. Introduction 
1.1 Some Initial Remarks . 1 
1.2 A Short Introduction to Growth 2 

2. Basics 
2.1 Growth References and Growth Charts 4 
2.2 Tempo and Amplitude 8 
2.3 Short Term Growth and Mini Growth Spurts 10 
2.4 Periodicity in Growth 12 
2.5 Growth Tracking 14 
2.6 Catch-up Growth 16 
2.7 Rapid Growth 18 
2.8 The Growth Plate 20 
2.9 Growth Hormone 24 
2.10 Negative Growth 26 

3. Body Shape, Composition and Proportions 
3.1 Types of Body Shape 28 
3.2 Body Composition 30 
3.3 Determining Body Composition in Field Studies 32 
3.4 Body Size, Somatotype and Sports 34 
3.5 Fluctuating Asymmetry 36 

4. From Birth to Maturity 
4.1 Comparative Biology and Human Life History 38 
4.2 Foetal Programming and Epigenetics 42 
4.3 Biological Age 44 
4.4 Variation in Tempo 48 
4.5 Twins 50 
4.6 Very Low Birth Weight Children 52 
4.7 Failure to Thrive during the First 2 Years 54 
4.8 Signs of Sexual Maturation 56 
4.9 Timing Puberty by Stage Line Diagrams 60 
4.10 Menarcheal Age in Egypt 62 
4.11 Adolescent Growth Spurt 64 
4.12 Body Image and Body Size during Puberty 66 
4.13 The Community Effect on Growth 68 
4.14 The Community Effect in Swiss Conscripts 72 

5. Height Predictions 
5.1 Final Height 74 
5.2 A Flow Chart to Final Height Prediction 76 
5.3 Target Height 78 
5.4 Final Height Prediction 82 
5.5 Factors that Influence Bone Ageing 88 

6. Prevention and Health 
6.1 Breast Feeding 90 
6.2 Infant, Toddler and Child Nutrition 92 
6.3 Short and Tall Stature 98 
6.4 Primary Growth Failure 102 
6.5 Secondary Growth Failure 104 
6.6 SGA and IUGR 106 
6.7 The Shortest People: Pericentrin mutations 108 
6.8 Growth in Diabetic Patients 110 
6.9 Body Proportions in Relation to Health 112 
6.10 Social Determinants of Health 114 
6.11 Migrants 116 
6.12 Childhood Obesity in Developing Countries 118 
6.13 Childhood Obesity: The Impact of Migration 120 
6.14 PEM in Children: Anthropometric Evaluation 122 
6.15 Nutrition Transition in Developing Countries 124 
6.16 How Good is the BMI for Detecting Obesity? 126 
6.17 Comments on Obesity 128 
6.18 Growth and Pollutants 130 

7. Auxology of the Past 
7.1 A Short History of the Study of Human Growth 132 
7.2 Secular Trends 138 
7.3 Trends in Amplitude and Tempo 140 
7.4 How to Plot Secular Growth Changes 142 
7.5 The History of Menarcheal Age 144 
7.6 Impact and Pitfalls of Conscription Data 146 
7.7 Conscript Height 150 
7.8 Long Term Changes in Head Dimensions 152 
7.9 Harris Lines 154 
7.10 Growth and Death in the Past 156 

8. Auxological Methods 
8.1 Requirements for Anthropometric References 158 
8.2 Measurement Error in Anthropometry 160 
8.3 Standardised Measurements 162 
8.4 Daily Home-made Measurements 164 
8.5 Automated Bone Age Determination 166 
8.6 Knemometry 168 
8.7 Testing for Hormone Deficiency 174 

9 Statistical Approaches 
9.1 Statistics for Bunnies 176 
9.2 Growth Velocity 178 
9.3 SDS and LMS 182 
9.4 Synthetic Growth Charts 184 
9.5 Harmonising National Growth Charts 186 
9.6 Stability and Instability in hSDS Changes 188 
9.7 Jump Preserving Smoothing Technique 190 
9.8 Rounding-Off and Heaping 192 
9.9 Parametric and Non-Parametric Regression Models 194 
9.10 Landmark based Statistical Shape Analysis 200 
9.11 A Bayesian Approach towards Modelling Growth 204 
9.12 Methods that still Lack Adequate Recognition 206 

10. Miscellaneous 
10.1 Geometry and Auxology 208 
10.2 Finger Length Ratios 210 
10.3 Patents in Auxology 212 
10.4 Myths, Tales and Beliefs 214 

11. Reference Values 
11.1 National Growth References 218 
11.2 References for Preterm Infants and Twins 234 
11.3 Syndrome Specific Growth Charts 244 
11.4 References for Growth Velocity 248 
11.5 References for SD Score Changes 256 
11.6 References for Tempo, Timing and Puberty 258 
11.7 References for Sitting Height 262 
11.8 Body Proportion Chart 264 
11.9 References for MUAC, BF and Skinfold Thickness 266 
11.10 References for WC and WHR 270 
11.11 References and Equations for Body Composition 272 
11.12 Body Surface and Ambiguous Genitalia 276 
11.13 References for IGF1 and IGFBP3 278 

12. Glossary 281 
13. Literature and Internet Resources 295 
14. Index 319


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