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Fire Blight: History, Biology, and Management

By: Tom van der Zwet (Author), Noemi Orolaza-Halbrendt (Author), Wolfgang Zeller (Author)

460 pages, 122 colour & 53 b/w illustrations

American Phytopathological Society

Hardback | Jan 2012 | #209094 | ISBN-13: 9780890543948
Availability: Usually dispatched within 2-3 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £280.00 $340/€312 approx

About this book

Three world-renowned experts provide comprehensive scientific coverage of this first known plant disease caused by a bacterium. Fire blight is present in 47 countries and affects many common host plants in the rose family worldwide. Although enormous progress has been made against the disease, it remains a devastating and difficult problem to control in certain locations under optimum weather conditions and agricultural scientists must remain diligent. It is expected that the disease may eventually spread around the globe to all countries growing pome fruit, and the knowledge presented here will be an important first line of defense.

This nearly 500-page book includes a history of the disease, plus detailed information about the biology, epidemiology, and host-pathogen interactions, as well as horticultural, chemical, and biological control management strategies. It includes important coverage of the discovery of pathogenicity and virulence genes, induced resistance, and the variability and diversity of the bacterial pathogen. These research advances offer promise for controlling the disease, where the traditional studies of epidemiology and conventional chemical or biological control have been unsuccessful. An addendum chapter compiling most of the literature covering phytobacteriological and molecular techniques for quick and easy reference is included.

Fire Blight will be especially useful to scientists beginning work on this disease and essential wherever scientists and the growers they serve are fighting its devastating effects on the economically important crops of pear and apple.

" [...] a powerful assessment of the science and nature of one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases affecting fruit trees [...] an in-depth assessment of the problem. A 'must' for an in-depth botany holding."
The Midwest Book Review

" [...] strongly recommend this book to attention of plant pathologists and to each agricultural and natural science libraries."
Journal of Plant Protection Research



Chapter 1: Early Theories and Discoveries Regarding Fire Blight
Early Theories (1780–1880)
Discovery of Bacterial Origin and Proof of Pathogenicity (1881–1900)
Dissemination and Disease Control (1901–1925)

Chapter 2: Spread and Current Distribution of Fire Blight
North America
West Pacific Rim
Western Europe
The Mediterranean Region
Central and Eastern Europe

Chapter 3: Losses Due to Fire Blight and Economic Importance of the Disease
The Most Traumatic Fire Blight Epiphytotics Ever Recorded
Losses Due to Fire Blight Outside the United States

Chapter 4: Symptomatology of Fire Blight and Host Range of Erwinia amylovora
Symptoms of Fire Blight
Host Range of the Fire Blight Pathogen

Chapter 5:Taxonomy, Detection, and Identification of Erwinia amylovora
Taxonomic Description
Differentiation from Other Erwinia Species
Detection and Identification

Chapter 6: Growth and Physiology of Erwinia amylovora
Morphology and Cultural Characteristics
Growth and Metabolism
Bacterial Exudate and Toxin
Effect of Temperature, pH, and Light on Growth and Survival
Chemotaxis and Motility
Longevity of Erwinia amylovora
Sensitivity to Bacteriophage
Effect of Microorganisms
Resistance to Chemicals and Antibiotics

Chapter 7: Genetic Diversity of Erwinia amylovora
The Concepts of Strains
Resistance to Chemicals and Antibiotics
Characterization by PCR
Other Molecular Methods

Chapter 8: Physiology and Biochemistry of Fire Blight Infection
Pathological Anatomy
Migration in Host Tissue
Host Ultrastructure
Biochemistry of Host Tissues
Phenol Metabolism
Hypersensitive Reaction
Osmotic Potential and Sorbitol Concentration of Host Tissue

Chapter 9: Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora
Early Studies of Pathogenicity and Development of a Mutagenesis System for the Study of Pathogenicity
The Hrp Pathogenicity Island of E. amylovora
hrp Genes and Proteins Secreted Through the Hrp Type III Secretion System
Other Virulence Factors

Chapter 10: The Disease Cycle of Fire Blight
Primary Infection
Secondary Infection

Chapter 11: Effect of Host Conditions, Cultural Practices, and Environment on Disease Development
Host Conditions
Cultural Practices
Meteorological Factors

Chapter 12: Breeding for Resistance to Fire Blight
Evaluation of Host Resistance
Conventional Breeding for Resistance
Biotechnological Approaches to Enhancing Fire Blight Resistance

Chapter 13: Utilizing Host Resistance to Fire Blight
Resistance of Commercial Cultivars
Recent Rootstock Research and Field Trials (1980–2005)
Artificial Inoculation Procedures

Chapter 14: Chemical and Cultural Approaches to Enhance Host Resistance to Fire Blight
Plant Growth Regulators
Induced Host Resistance
Orchard Management

Chapter 15: Exclusion of Fire Blight by Sanitation, Eradication, and Quarantine
Sanitation and Eradication
Importance of Quarantine for Areas Without Fire Blight
Risk Associated with Movement of Plant Material
Myths of So-Called Protection Zones
Risk Associated with Importation of Fruit
Recommendations for the Exclusion of Fire Blight from Countries Without the Disease

Chapter 16: Reducing Inoculum Levels in Previously Infected Orchards
Removal of Holdover Cankers During Winter Pruning
Early-Season Application of Copper
Pruning Out Early-Season Infections
Control of Insect Vectors
Maintaining “Clean” Nursery Stock

Chapter 17: Fire Blight Risk Assessment Systems and Prediction Models
Technical Theories of Prediction Systems and Models
Practical Application of Prediction Systems

Chapter 18:Chemical Agents That Interfere with Fire Blight Infection
Control of Blossom Blight
Control of Shoot Blight
Chemical Agents

Chapter 19: Biological Control of Fire Blight
Biocontrol by Bacterial Antagonists
Evaluation of Antagonists in Vitro, in the Greenhouse, and in the Orchard
Implementation of Biological Control in Integrated Disease Management
Mechanisms of Biological Control by Bacterial Antagonists
Use of Bacterial Antagonism in Fire Blight Management
Biocontrol by Avirulent Strains, Bacteriophages, and Yeasts
Biocontrol by Natural Compounds

Chapter 20: Integrated Management Strategies for Fire Blight Control
Successful Commercial Management of Fire Blight of Bartlett Pears in the Central Valley of California
Ten Years of Successful Fire Blight Management in Apples in Southwest Germany Successful Management of Fire Blight of Pears in Israel with the Fire Blight Management (Fire-Man) Project

Appendix 1: Phytobacteriological and Molecular Biology Techniques
Phytopathological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization
Culture Media
Detection and Identification
Virulence Tests
Pathogenicity Test and Screening for Resistance
Plant Inoculation and Resistance Evaluation
Streptomycin Resistance
Blight Evaluation and Scoring Systems

Appendix 2: Theses and Dissertations on Fire Blight
Appendix 3: Books, Chapters, Reviews, Bulletins, and Feature Articles on Fire Blight (1970–2007)
Appendix 4: American and International Workshops on Fire Blight (1969–2004)


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