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The Genus Calanthe

Identification KeyMonograph

By: Dudley Clayton (Author), Phillip J Cribb (Author)

411 pages, 43 plates with colour photos; 4 colour photos, 2 colour illustrations, 91 b/w line drawings, 2 colour distribution maps, 2 colour tables

Natural History Publications Borneo

Hardback | Jan 2013 | #209455 | ISBN-13: 9789838121415
Availability: In stock
NHBS Price: £51.99 $66/€62 approx

About this book

Calanthe is a widespread but predominantly tropical orchid genus, distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia from India across to Japan, and southwards and eastwards to north-eastern Australia and the Pacific Islands, east to Tahiti, tropical and South Africa, Madagascar, the islands of the Indian Ocean and in Central and South America and the Caribbean. The centre of diversity lies in Southeast Asia and the Malay Archipelago, while secondary centres of diversity can be found in the China and New Guinea.

Georg Rumph (1627–1702), better known as Rumphius, in his posthumously published Herbarium Rumphianum (1750), was the first to describe and illustrate a Calanthe from Ambon in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), giving it the pre-Linnaean name “Flos triplicatus seu Helleborus Amboinicus”. In 1821 Robert Brown established the genus Calanthe; since then hundreds of new species have been described.

Bearing in mind the popularity of calanthes in horticulture, it is surprising that this is the first account in English of the genus to be published since 1833 when John Lindley catalogued the species. The German botanist Rudolf Schlechter (1872–1925) described many tropical species, mainly from New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago, and produced an improved classification of the genus. Unfortunately, no recent comprehensive account of the genus exists. Some 450 names have been applied to the 200 or so Calanthe species. In this work we have maintained much of Schlechter’s classification, but we now recognise seven sections in subgenus Calanthe, including the newly described section Monophylla to distinguish the unifoliate species. To aid identification of the species of section Calanthe, we have divided it into three series: Calanthe, Sylvatica and Triplicata.

We have treated Calanthe here in its traditional sense. It is hoped that this publication will provide a base-line of information for those making further studies of the genus. As the chapter on Calanthe phylogeny intimates, the genus is un-natural and changes to its circumscription are necessary once more detailed information on the DNA analyses is published.


Contents

Acknowledgements  Ix
Preface  X

- Introduction  1
- Distribution  3
- Ecology  7
- 1 Temperate Forest And Woodland  7
- 2 Tropical Forests  7
- 3 Sub-alpine Vegetation  9
- Morphology And Anatomy  11
- Vegetative Morphology  11
- Inflorescence  11
- Floral Morphology  11
- Anatomy  12
- Cytology  13
- Phylogeny (Author Professor Tomohisa Yukawa)  17
- The Intergeneric Relationship  17
- Multiple Origins Of Calanthe  17
- Evolutionary History In Calanthe  18
- Pollination  21
- Conservation  22
- Taxonomy  23
- Derivation Of The Name  24
- Classification  24
- Sectional Treatment Of The Genus Calanthe  24
- Artificial Key To The Genus Calanthe  26
- Subgenera, Sections And Species Listed  27
- Keys And Description
- Calanthe Subgenus Preptanthe  33
- Calanthe Subgenus Calanthe  45
- Section Monophylla  45
- Section Styloglossum  51
- Section Aceratochilus  103
- Section Vernae  107
- Section Calanthe Series Calanthe  154
- Section Calanthe Series Sylvatica  227
- Section Calanthe Series Triplicata  244
- Section Rhodochilus  279
- Section Ghiesbreghtia  293
- Index Of Synonyms And Excluded Species  297
- Hybridisation (Authors Chris Purver & Dudley Clayton)  311
- Natural Hybrids  311
- Artificial Hybrids  311
- Cultivation (Authors Chris Purver & Dudley Clayton)  321
- Tropical Deciduous Species And Hybrids  321
- Temperature  322
- Light  322
- Humidity  322
- Watering And Feeding  323
- Composts  324
- Tropical Evergreen Species  325
- Temperate Species  325
- General Requirements  325
- Lighting And Shading  326
- Ventilation And Humidity  326
- Containers, Composts And Repotting  327
- Watering And Feeding  327
- Potting And Vegetative Propagation  327
- Pests And Diseases  328
- Viruses  328
- Scale Insects  328
- Slugs And Snails  329
- Two-spotted Spider Mite  329
- Aphids  330
- Bibliography  331
- Glossary Of Terms  338
- Biographical Notes  344
- Colour Plates  353
- Index Of Scientific Names  399


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