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Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity

Focuses on better quantification of atmospheric deposition, development and application of critical loads methodologies
Looks at the assessment of impacts on biodiversity, the consequences for ecosystem services
Includes approaches to developing environmental policies to manage the threats of nitrogen deposition

By: Mark A Sutton (Editor), Kate E Mason (Editor), Lucy J Sheppard (Editor), Harald Sverdrup (Editor), Richard Haeuber (Editor), W Kevin Hicks (Editor)

520 pages, 82 colour & 95 b/w illustrations


Hardback | Jan 2014 | #211148 | ISBN-13: 9789400779389
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £149.00 $182/€167 approx

About this book

Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity brings together extended reviews and papers of new scientific research on atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts globally. While there is a wealth of evidence on the magnitude, components and effects of nitrogen disposition on floral biodiversity in Europe and North America, there is an obvious lack of information on impacts on above- and below-ground fauna, and all impacts in other parts of the world, with no clear overview of how the different strands of evidence fit together. This overall synthesis is targeted at the international conventions, but is equally readable for scientists, environmental managers, conservation agencies and policy makers.

"This timely book highlights the global nitrogen deposition problem. Major regions of the world are exceeding sustainability thresholds for adverse effects on ecosystem function and biodiversity. This highlights the importance of ongoing work, including under the Convention on Biological Diversity, in developing indicators and monitoring nitrogen deposition effects to enable appropriate measures. This book presents a milestone towards this global goal as the international community works toward meeting the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, especially Target 8: "By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity."
- Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias, Executive Secretary, Convention on Biological Diversity

"This key volume highlights the global challenge to reduce atmospheric nitrogen pollution resulting from energy production, transport and agricultural activities. It takes forward the agenda recently launched in the UNEP commissioned report Our Nutrient World."
- Dr. Anjan Datta, UNEP


1 Nitrogen Deposition, Critical loads and Biodiversity: Introduction
W. Kevin Hicks, Richard Haeuber and Mark A. Sutton

Part I   Monitoring and modelling atmospheric nitrogen deposition
2 Progress in Monitoring and Modelling Estimates of Nitrogen Deposition at Local, Regional and Global Scales
Frank Dentener, Robert Vet, Robin L. Dennis, Enzai Du, Umesh C. Kulshrestha and Corinne Galy-Lacaux

3 Gaseous nitrogen emissions from Australian cattle feedlots
O. Tom Denmead, Deli Chen, Doug Rowell, Zoe Loh, Julian Hill, Stephanie Muir, David W.T. Griffith, Travis Naylor, Mei Bai, Frances Phillips and Sean  McGinn 

4 Ammonia Emissions in the US: Assessing the Role of Bi-directional Ammonia Transport using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model
Megan L. Gore, Ellen J. Cooter, Robin L. Dennis, Jon E. Pleim and Viney P. Aneja

5 Regional Scale Modelling of the Concentration and Deposition of Oxidised and Reduced Nitrogen in the UK
Anthony J. Dore, Małgorzata Werner, Jane R. Hall, Christopher J. Dore, Stephen Hallsworth, Maciej Kryza, Ron I. Smith, Ulrike Dragosits, Y. Sim Tang,  Massimo Vieno and Mark A. Sutton

6 High Rates of Wet Nitrogen Deposition in China: A Synthesis
Enzai Du and Xuejun Liu

7 Enrichment of atmospheric ammonia and ammonium in the North China Plain
Jianlin Shen, Xuejun Liu, Andreas Fangmeier and Fusuo Zhang

8 Nitrogen Deposition within the Littoral-highlands County of Croatia between 1996 and 2008
Ana Alebic-Juretic

9 Atmospheric Deposition of Reactive Nitrogen in India
Umesh Kulshrestha, Monika J. Kulshrestha, Jetta Satyanarayana and Loka Arun K. Reddy 

10 Dry and Wet Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition in West Central Africa
Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Claire Delon, Fabien Solmon, Marcellin Adon , Véronique Yoboué , Jonas Mphepya, Jacobus J. Pienaar, Babakar Diop, Luc Sigha, Laouali Dungall, Aristide Akpo, Eric Mougin, Eric Gardrat and Pierre Castera

11 Interannual Variability of the Atmospheric Nitrogen Budget in West African Dry Savannas
Claire Delon, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Marcellin Adon, Catherine Liousse, Aaron Boone, Dominique Serça, Babakar Diop, Aristide Akpo and Eric Mougin

12 Assessment and Characterisation of the Organic Component of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition
Sarah E. Cornell

13 Wet Deposition of Nitrogen at Different Locations in India
P.S.P. Rao, P.D. Safai, Krishnakant Budhavant and V.K. Soni

Part II Nitrogen impacts on terrestrial and aquatic Ecosystems
14 Factors Affecting Nitrogen Deposition Impacts on Biodiversity: An Overview
Roland Bobbink and W. Kevin Hicks

15 What Happens to Ammonia on Leaf Surfaces?
J. Neil Cape

16 Effects of Nutrient Additions on the Diversity of the Herbaceous-subshrub Layer of a Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado)
Thiago R. B. de Mello, Cássia B. R. Munhoz and Mercedes M. C. Bustamante

17 Leaf Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Release under Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Nitrogen plus Phosphorus Additions in a Savanna in Central Brazil
Tamiel K.B. Jacobson and Mercedes M.C. Bustamante

18 Diversity of the Shrub-tree Layer in a Brazilian Cerrado under Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Nitrogen plus Phosphorus Addition
Tamiel K. B. Jacobson and Mercedes M. C. Bustamante 

19 Model Predictions of Effects of Different Climate Change Scenarios on Species Diversity with or without Management Intervention, Repeated Thinning, for a Site in Central European Russia
Larisa G. Khanina, Maxim V. Bobrovsky, Alexander S. Komarov, Vladimir N. Shanin and Sergey S. Bykhovets

20 Seasonal Changes in Photosynthetic Nitrogen of Tree Species Differing in Leaf Phenology in a South-eastern Brazilian Savanna
Sabrina R. Latansio-Aidar, Luciana D. Colleta, Jean P.H.B. Ometto and Marcos P.M. Aidar

21 Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition can Provide Supplementary Fertilization to Sugar Cane Crops in Venezuela
Danilo López-Hernández, Diego Sequera, Oswaldo Vallejo and Carmen Infante

22 Competition Alters Responses of Juvenile Woody Plants and Grasses to Nitrogen Addition in Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado)
Viviane T. Miranda, Mercedes M.C. Bustamante and Alessandra R. Kozovits

23 Pigment Ratios of the Mediterranean Bryophyte Pleurochaete squarrosa Respond to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition
Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, Cristina Paradela, M. Esther Pérez-Corona and Esteban Manrique

24 Calibrating Total Nitrogen Concentration in Lichens with Emissions of Reduced Nitrogen at the Regional Scale
P. Pinho, Maria-Amélia Martins-Loução, Cristina Máguas and Cristina Branquinho

25 The Impact of the Rural Land-use on the Ecological Integrity of the Intermittent Streams of the Mediterranean 2000 Natura Network
Cristina Branquinho, Carla Gonzalez, Adelaide Clemente, Pedro Pinho and Otília Correia

26 Biodiversity of Acid Grasslands in the Atlantic Regions of Europe: The Impact of Nitrogen Deposition
Carly J. Stevens, Cecilia Duprè, Edu Dorland, Cassandre Gaudnik, David J.G. Gowing, Albert Bleeker, Martin Diekmann, Didier Alard, Roland Bobbink, David Fowler, Emmanuel Corcket, J. Owen Mountford, Vigdis Vandvik, Per Arild Aarrestad, Serge Muller and Nancy B. Dise

27 Effects of Increased Nitrogen Availability in Mediterranean Ecosystems: A Case Study in a Natura 2000 Site in Portugal
Teresa Dias, Sandra Chaves, Rogério Tenreiro, Maria Amélia Martins-Loução, Lucy J. Sheppard and Cristina Cruz

28 Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spores can Indicate Increased Nitrogen Availability in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems
Teresa Dias, Sidney Luiz Stürmer, Sandra Chaves, Cátia Fidalgo, Rogério Tenreiro, Patrícia Correia, Luís Carvalho, Maria Amélia Martins-Loução, Lucy J. Sheppard and Cristina Cruz

29 Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Research at Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: Soils, Biodiversity and Climate Change
Frank S. Gilliam

Part III Critical loads and levels approaches and regional upscaling
30 Development of the critical loads concept and current and potential applications to different regions of the world

Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Wim de Vries, Maximilian Posch, Gert Jan Reinds, Jaap Slootweg, W. Kevin Hicks

31 Nitrogen Deposition as a Threat to the World’s Protected Areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Albert Bleeker, W. Kevin Hicks, Frank Dentener, James N. Galloway and Jan Willem Erisman

32 How Much is too Much? Nitrogen Critical Loads and Eutrophication and Acidification in Oligotrophic Ecosystems
William D. Bowman, L’uboš Halada, Juraj Hreško, Cory C. Cleveland, Jill S. Baron and John Murgel

33 Predicting Lichen-based Critical Loads for Nitrogen Deposition in Temperate Forests
Linda H. Geiser, Sarah E. Jovan, Douglas A. Glavich and Mark E. Fenn

34 Using Fire Risk and Species Loss to set Critical Loads for Nitrogen Deposition in Southern California Shrublands
Edith B. Allen, Leela E. Rao, Gail Tonnesen, Robert F. Johnson, Mark E. Fenn and Andrzej Bytnerowicz

35 Empirical Critical Loads of Nitrogen in China
Lei Duan, Jia Xing, Yu Zhao and Jiming Hao

36 Challenges in Defining Critical Loads for Nitrogen in UK Lakes 
Chris J. Curtis, Gavin L. Simpson, Rick W. Battarbee and Stephen Maberly

37 Proposing a Strict Epidemiological Methodology for Setting Empirical Critical Loads for Nitrogen Deposition
Harald Sverdrup, Bengt Nihlgård, Salim Belyazid and Lucy J. Sheppard

38 A Comparison of Empirical and Modelled Nitrogen Critical Loads for Mediterranean Forests and Shrublands in California
Mark E. Fenn, Hans-Dieter Nagel, Ina Koseva, Julian Aherne, Sarah E. Jovan, Linda H. Geiser, Angela Schlutow, Thomas Scheuschner, Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Benjamin S. Gimeno, Fengming Yuan, Shaun A. Watmough, Edith B. Allen, Robert F. Johnson and Thomas Meixner

39 Source Attribution of Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutants on the UK Natura 2000 Network
William J. Bealey, Anthony J. Dore, Clare P. Whitfield, Jane R. Hall, Massimo Vieno and Mark A. Sutton

40 Mapping Critical Loads for Nitrogen Based on Biodiversity using ForSAFE-VEG: Introducing the Basic Principles
Harald Sverdrup, Bengt Nihlgård and Salim Belyazid

Part IV Nitrogen deposition, ecosystem services and policy development
41 Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Services in Interaction with Other Nutrients, Air Pollutants and Climate Change
Wim de Vries, Christine Goodale, Jan Willem Erisman and Jean-Paul Hettelingh

42 The Form of Reactive Nitrogen Deposition Affects the Capacity of Peatland Vegetation to Immobilise Nitrogen: Implications for the Provision of Ecosystem Services
Lucy J. Sheppard, Ian D. Leith, Sanna K. Kivimaki and Jenny Gaiawyn

43 Quantification of Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem Services in Europe
Wim de Vries, Maximilian Posch, Gert Jan Reinds and Jean-Paul Hettelingh

44 Implications of Current Knowledge on Nitrogen Deposition and Impacts for Policy, Management and Capacity Building Needs: CLRTAP
Till Spranger, Keith Bull, Thomas A. Clair and Matti Johansson

45 The Convention on Biological Diversity: How does Nitrogen fit into the Plans?
James M. Williams

46 Agriculture and the Nitrogen Problem in India: Environmental Implications
Krishna P. Vadrevu and K.V.S. Badarinath

47 Mitigating Increases in Nitrogen Deposition: The Challenge of Extending Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation to Cereals and Other Non-legume Crops
Edward C. Cocking and Philip J. Stone

Part V Conclusions and outlook
48 Progress in Nitrogen Deposition Monitoring and Modelling
Wenche Aas (Chair), Silvina Carou (Rapporteur), Ana Alebic-Juretic, Viney P. Aneja, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Haldis Berge, J. Neil Cape, Claire Delon, O. Tom Denmead, Robin L. Dennis, Frank Dentener, Anthony J. Dore, Enzai Du, Maria Cristina Forti, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Markus Geupel, Richard Haeuber, Carmen Iacoban, Alexander S. Komarov, Eero Kubin, Umesh C. Kulshrestha, Brian Lamb, Xuejun Liu, D.D. Patra, Jacobus J. Pienaar, Pedro Pinho, P.S.P. Rao, Jianlin Shen, Mark A. Sutton, Mark R. Theobald, Krishna P. Vadrevu and Robert Vet

49 The Effects of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity
Jill S. Baron (Chair), Mary Barber (Rapporteur), Mark Adams, Julius I. Agboola, Edith B. Allen, William J. Bealey, Roland Bobbink, Maxim V. Bobrovsky, William D. Bowman, Cristina Branquinho, Mercedes M.C. Bustamente, Christopher M. Clark, Edward C. Cocking, Cristina Cruz, Eric Davidson, O. Tom Denmead, Teresa Dias, Nancy B. Dise, Alan Feest, James N. Galloway, Linda H. Geiser,  Frank S. Gilliam, Ian Harrison, Larisa G. Khanina, Xiankai Lu, Esteban Manrique, Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, Jean P.H.B. Ometto, Richard Payne, Thomas Scheuschner, Lucy J. Sheppard, Gavin L. Simpson, Y.V. Singh, Carly J. Stevens, Ian Strachan, Harold Sverdrup, Naoko Tokuchi, Hans van Dobben and Sarah Woodin

50 The Critical Loads and Levels Approach for Nitrogen
Thomas A. Clair (Chair), Tamara Blett (Co-chair and Rapporteur), Julian Aherne, Marcos P.M. Aidar, Richard Artz, William J. Bealey, William Budd, J. Neil Cape, Chris J. Curtis, Lei Duan, Mark E. Fenn, Peter Groffman, Richard Haeuber, Jane R. Hall, Jean-Paul Hettelingh, Danilo López-Hernández, Scot Mathieson, Linda Pardo, Maximilian Posch, Richard V. Pouyot, Till Spranger, Harald Sverdrup, Hans van Dobben and Arjan van Hinsberg

51 Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change
Jan Willem Erisman (Chair), Allison Leach (Rapporteur), Mark Adams,  Julius I. Agboola, Luan Ahmetaj, Didier Alard, Amy Austin, Moses A. Awodun, Simon Bareham, Theresa Bird, Albert Bleeker, Keith Bull, Sarah E. Cornell, Eric Davidson, Wim de Vries, Teresa Dias, Bridget Emmett, Christine Goodale,Tara Greaver, Rick Haeuber, Harry Harmens, W. Kevin Hicks, Lars Hogbom, Paul Jarvis, Matti Johansson, Zoe Masters, Colin McClean, Bill Paton, Tibisay Perez, Jan Plesnik, Nalini Rao, Susanne Schmidt, Yogendra B. Sharma, Naoko Tokuchi, and Clare P. Whitfield

52 Workshop on Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity: Scientific synthesis and summary for policy makers
W. Kevin Hicks, Richard Haeuber and Mark A. Sutton with contributions from Wenche Aas, Silvina Carou, Jill S. Baron, Mary Barber, Thomas Clair, Tamara Blett, Jan Willem Erisman, Allison Leach and James N. Galloway


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Mark A. Sutton is a leading international expert in the behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere and their impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. He has a special interest in interactions of atmospheric ammonia and on development of the science policy interface. He is based at the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Edinburgh) and is currently Chair of the International Nitrogen Initiative.

Kate E. Mason is an information systems professional working at the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Edinburgh). She has an MScEcon in Archives and extensive experience working in academic libraries and archives.

Lucy J. Sheppard has been leading field manipulation experiments into pollution effects on terrestrial ecosystems for nearly 30 years. She has a special interest in effects of different N forms on semi-natural vegetation and carbon cycling in peatlands. She is based at the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Edinburgh).

Harald Sverdrup researches actively into chemical weathering of minerals in soils, and the modelling of soil chemistry and forest and aquatic ecosystems involving population dynamics and nutrient and pollution flows. His research on Critical Loads has been used widely under the UNECE-LRTAP Convention where his team have built and adapted models such as PROFILE, SAFE, FORSAFE, AGRO-SAFE and BigMERK to regional use in Europe. At present he focuses on integrated sustainability assessments and is using biogeochemical models to drive biodiversity models. He has been Professor of Chemical Engineering at Lund University since 1994.

Richard Haeuber leads the Assessment and Communications Branch in the Clean Air Markets Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency. He was formerly Associate Director of the Ecological Society of America's Science Programs Office, where he focused on the ecological effects of air pollution on terrestrial, aquatic, and coastal ecosystems. As a Congressional Fellow, he advised US Senate staff on air quality issues and multi-pollutant control legislation.

W. Kevin Hicks is a leading researcher with an interest in the transfer of scientific information to the policy process, especially concerning air pollution impacts on terrestrial ecosystems from local to global scales and the linkages between air pollution, climate, biodiversity and ecosystems services. He currently sits on Steering Committee of the European Centre of the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) and is a Senior Research Fellow at the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Environment Department, at the University of York, UK.

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