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The Insects: An Outline of Entomology

Textbook

By: Penny J Gullan (Author), Peter S Cranston (Author)

595 pages, b/w illustrations

Wiley-Blackwell

Hardback | Oct 2014 | Edition: 5 | #213945 | ISBN-13: 9781118846155
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NHBS Price: £44.99 $57/€53 approx

About this book

Insects represent over half of the planet's biological diversity. This popular textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to this extraordinary diversity, and places entomology central to the theory and practice of evolutionary and ecological studies.

Fully revised, this fifth edition opens with a chapter concerning the popular side of insect studies, including insects in citizen science, zoos and butterfly houses, and insects as food for humans and animals. Key features of insect structure, function, behaviour, ecology and classification are integrated with appropriate molecular studies. Much of The Insects is organized around major biological themes: living on the ground, in water, on plants, in colonies, and as predators, parasites/parasitoids and prey insects. A strong evolutionary theme is maintained throughout.

There is major revision to the chapter on systematics and a new chapter, Insects in a Changing World, includes insect responses to, and the consequences of, both climate change and human-assisted global alterations to distributions. Updated 'Taxoboxes' demonstrate topical issues and provide concise information on all aspects of each of the 28 major groupings (orders) of insects, plus the three orders of non-insect hexapods. New boxes describe a worrying increase in insect threats to landscape and commercial trees (including eucalypts, palms and coffee) and explain the value of genetic data, including evolutionary developmental biology and DNA barcoding, in insect biodiversity studies.

The authors maintain the clarity and conciseness of earlier editions, and extend the profuse illustrations with new hand-drawn figures. Over 50 colour photographs, together with the informative text and an accompanying website with links to video clips, appendices, textboxes and further reading lists, encourage a deeper scientific study of insects. The Insects is intended as the principal text for students studying entomology, as well as a reference text for undergraduate and graduate courses in the fields of ecology, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, palaeontology, zoology, and medical and veterinary science.
 


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The Insects: An Outline of Entomology

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Contents

Concise table of contents:

List of colour plates ix
List of boxes xiii
Preface to the fifth edition xv
Preface to the fourth edition xvii
Preface to the third edition xix
Preface to the second edition xxi
Preface and acknowledgments for first edition xxiii
About the companion website xxv

1 The importance of diversity and conservation of insects 1
2 External anatomy 26
3 Internal anatomy and physiology 56
4 Sensory systems and behaviour 95
5 Reproduction 125
6 Insect development and life histories 156
7 Insect systematics: phylogeny and classification 190
8 Insect evolution and biogeography 227
9 Ground-dwelling insects 249
10 Aquatic insects 271
11 Insects and plants 289
12 Insect societies 322
13 Insect predation and parasitism 354
14 Insect defence 377
15 Medical and veterinary entomology 397
16 Pest management 418
17 Insects in a changing world 457
18 Methods in entomology:collecting preservationcuration and identification 474

References 555
Index 563
Appendix: A reference guide to orders 589


Detailed table of contents:

List of colour plates ix

List of boxes xiii

Preface to the fifth edition xv

Preface to the fourth edition xvii

Preface to the third edition xix

Preface to the second edition xxi

Preface and acknowledgments for first edition xxiii

About the companion website xxv

1 THE IMPORTANCE DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF INSECTS 1

1.1 What is entomology? 2

1.2 The importance of insects 2

1.3 Insect biodiversity 6

1.4 Naming and classification of insects 10

1.5 Insects in popular culture and commerce 11

1.6 Culturing insects 13

1.7 Insect conservation 14

1.8 Insects as food 20

Further reading 25

2 EXTERNAL ANATOMY 26

2.1 The cuticle 27

2.2 Segmentation and tagmosis 33

2.3 The head 35

2.4 The thorax 45

2.5 The abdomen 52

Further reading 55

3 INTERNAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 56

3.1 Muscles and locomotion 57

3.2 The nervous system and co-ordination 63

3.3 The endocrine system and the function of hormones 66

3.4 The circulatory system 69

3.5 The tracheal system and gas exchange 73

3.6 The gut digestion and nutrition 77

3.7 The excretory system and waste disposal 86

3.8 Reproductive organs 90

Further reading 93

4 SENSORY SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIOUR 95

4.1 Mechanical stimuli 96

4.2 Thermal stimuli 105

4.3 Chemical stimuli 107

4.4 Insect vision 117

4.5 Insect behaviour 122

Further reading 124

5 REPRODUCTION 125

5.1 Bringing the sexes together 126

5.2 Courtship 128

5.3 Sexual selection 128

5.4 Copulation 131

5.5 Diversity in genitalic morphology 136

5.6 Sperm storage fertilization and sex determination 139

5.7 Sperm competition 140

5.8 Oviparity (egg-laying) 144

5.9 Ovoviviparity and viviparity 150

5.10 Other modes of reproduction 150

5.11 Physiological control of reproduction 153

Further reading 154

6 INSECT DEVELOPMENT AND LIFE HISTORIES 156

6.1 Growth 157

6.2 Life-history patterns and phases 158

6.3 Process and control of moulting 169

6.4 Voltinism 172

6.5 Diapause 173

6.6 Dealing with environmental extremes 174

6.7 Migration 178

6.8 Polymorphism and polyphenism 180

6.9 Age-grading 181

6.10 Environmental effects on development 183

Further reading 188

7 INSECT SYSTEMATICS: PHYLOGENY AND CLASSIFICATION 190

7.1 Systematics 191

7.2 The extant Hexapoda 201

7.3 Informal group Entognatha: Collembola (springtails) Diplura (diplurans) and Protura (proturans) 202

7.4 Class Insecta (true insects) 203

Further reading 224

8 INSECT EVOLUTION AND BIOGEOGRAPHY 227

8.1 Relationships of the Hexapoda to other Arthropoda 228

8.2 The antiquity of insects 229

8.3 Were the first insects aquatic or terrestrial? 236

8.4 Evolution of wings 238

8.5 Evolution of metamorphosis 241

8.6 Insect diversification 242

8.7 Insect biogeography 244

8.8 Insect evolution in the Pacific 245

Further reading 247

9 GROUND-DWELLING INSECTS 249

9.1 Insects of litter and soil 250

9.2 Insects and dead trees or decaying wood 260

9.3 Insects and dung 261

9.4 Insect–carrion interactions 264

9.5 Insect–fungal interactions 265

9.6 Cavernicolous insects 268

9.7 Environmental monitoring using ground-dwelling hexapods 268

Further reading 270

10 AQUATIC INSECTS 271

10.1 Taxonomic distribution and terminology 272

10.2 The evolution of aquatic lifestyles 275

10.3 Aquatic insects and their oxygen supplies 277

10.4 The aquatic environment 282

10.5 Environmental monitoring using aquatic insects 284

10.6 Functional feeding groups 285

10.7 Insects of temporary waterbodies 286

10.8 Insects of the marine intertidal and littoral zones 287

Further reading 288

11 INSECTS AND PLANTS 289

11.1 Coevolutionary interactions between insects and plants 291

11.2 Phytophagy (or herbivory) 293

11.3 Insects and plant reproductive biology 313

11.4 Insects that live mutualistically in specialized plant structures 318

Further reading 320

12 INSECT SOCIETIES 322

12.1 Subsociality in insects 323

12.2 Eusociality in insects 327

12.3 Inquilines and parasites of social insects 345

12.4 Evolution and maintenance of eusociality 348

12.5 Success of social insects 351

Further reading 353

13 INSECT PREDATION AND PARASITISM 354

13.1 Prey/host location 355

13.2 Prey/host acceptance and manipulation 361

13.3 Prey/host selection and specificity 364

13.4 Population biology – predator/parasitoid and prey/host abundance 372

13.5 The evolutionary success of insect predation and parasitism 375

Further reading 376

14 INSECT DEFENCE 377

14.1 Defence by hiding 379

14.2 Secondary lines of defence 380

14.3 Mechanical defences 382

14.4 Chemical defences 384

14.5 Defence by mimicry 388

14.6 Collective defences in gregarious and social insects 392

Further reading 396

15 MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY 397

15.1 Insects as causes and vectors of disease 398

15.2 Generalized disease cycles 399

15.3 Pathogens 399

15.4 Forensic entomology 413

15.5 Insect nuisance and phobia 414

15.6 Venoms and allergens 416

Further reading 417

16 PEST MANAGEMENT 418

16.1 Insects as pests 419

16.2 The effects of insecticides 425

16.3 Integrated pest management 428

16.4 Chemical control 429

16.5 Biological control 435

16.6 Host-plant resistance to insects 447

16.7 Physical control 451

16.8 Cultural control 451

16.9 Pheromones and other insect attractants 452

16.10 Genetic manipulation of insect pests 454

Further reading 455

17 INSECTS IN A CHANGING WORLD 457

17.1 Models of change 458

17.2 Economically significant insects under climate change 463

17.3 Implications of climate change for insect biodiversity and conservation 467

17.4 Global trade and insects 468

Further reading 473

18 METHODS IN ENTOMOLOGY:COLLECTING PRESERVATIONCURATION AND IDENTIFICATION 474

18.1 Collection 475

18.2 Preservation and curation 478

18.3 Identification 488

Further reading 491

TAXOBOXES 493

1 Entognatha: non-insect hexapods(Collembola Diplura and Protura) 493

2 Archaeognatha (Microcoryphia; archaeognathans or bristletails) 495

3 Zygentoma (silverfish) 496

4 Ephemeroptera (mayflies) 497

5 Odonata (damselflies anddragonflies) 498

6 Plecoptera (stoneflies) 500

7 Dermaptera (earwigs) 500

8 Zoraptera (zorapterans or angelinsects) 501

9 Orthoptera (grasshoppers locustskatydids and crickets) 502

10 Embioptera (Embiidina Emboidea;embiopterans or webspinners) 503

11 Phasmatodea (phasmids stick-insects or walking sticks) 503

12 Grylloblattodea (Grylloblattaria or Notoptera; grylloblattids ice crawlers or rock crawlers) 504

13 Mantophasmatodea (heelwalkers) 505

14 Mantodea (mantids mantises or praying mantids) 506

15 Blattodea: roach families (cockroaches or roaches) 507

16 Blattodea: epifamily Termitoidae (former order Isoptera; termites “white ants”) 508

17 Psocodea: “Psocoptera” (bark lice and book lice) 509

18 Psocodea: “Phthiraptera” (chewing lice and sucking lice) 510

19 Thysanoptera (thrips) 511

20 Hemiptera (bugs moss bugs cicadas leafhoppers planthoppers spittle bugs treehoppers aphids jumping plant lice scale insects and whiteflies) 512

21 Neuropterida: Neuroptera (lacewings owlflies and antlions) Megaloptera (alderflies dobsonflies and fishflies) and Raphidioptera (snakeflies) 514

22 Coleoptera (beetles) 516

23 Strepsiptera (strepsipterans) 517

24 Diptera (true flies) 519

25 Mecoptera (hangingflies scorpionflies and snowfleas) 520

26 Siphonaptera (fleas) 521

27 Trichoptera (caddisflies) 522

28 Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) 523

29 Hymenoptera (ants bees wasps sawflies and wood wasps) 524

Glossary 526

References 555

Index 563

Appendix: A reference guide to orders 589
 


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Biography

Penny Gullan and Peter Cranston are adjunct professors in Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, in the Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, where they conduct research on the biodiversity and systematics of Coccoidea and Chironomidae, respectively. Both maintain emeritus connections with the Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, USA.

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