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Geothermal Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment

Adds a new chapter on enhanced geothermal systems
Provides key background, theory and practice applications for geothermal systems
Examines the spectrum of geothermal applications, from large industrial power to agricultural uses and small-scale heating
Explains geosciences, drilling operations and techniques, types of well pumps, and more
Includes examples and case studies

Series: Energy and the Environment (CRC Press)

By: William E Glassley (Author)

450 pages, colour & b/w illustrations

CRC Press

Hardback | Oct 2014 | Edition: 2 | #214002 | ISBN-13: 9781482221749
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £94.99 $121/€113 approx

About this book

Fully updated and featuring a new chapter on enhanced geothermal systems, this Second Edition of a Choice Award winner contains the latest scientific information used to discern applications and regions best suited for geothermal energy. Stressing environmental effects related to acquisition and consumption, the text explores where geothermal energy comes from and how to find it, as well as how it can be accessed, applied, and improved for future use. It provides background, theory, and practical techniques for implementing different types of geothermal energy projects.

"This is a very well written book and is very useful for both scientists as well as technologists as the ready reference for geothermal energy. It deals with every possible latest aspect with basic concepts along with the mathematical description. It will certainly be very handy for the planner as well as students who like to tap the potential of alternate energy resource."
– Professor Sandeep Singh, IIT Roorkee, India

"Great introductory treatment of all aspects of geothermal energy – from sources and occurrences, to exploration and utilization, to economic and environmental aspects, and to the future possibilities."
– Andrew Chiasson, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, USA

"This book provides a thorough, solid grounding in the basic physical science needed to understand geothermal energy. This is not always the case in writings on renewable energy! The reader of Glassley's book will come away with a clear understanding of basic thermodynamics, geophysics, and geochemistry at a fundamental level. That leads to a deeper appreciation for the technological needs and challenges of geothermal energy systems. The book is quantitative throughout – an essential feature if one is to grasp the true potential of any renewable energy resource."
– Richard Wolfson, Professor of Physics & Environmental Studies, Middlebury College, Vermont, USA

" [...] provides an excellent general discussion of the major elements in this new aspect of geothermal energy development such as the "magnitude" and "characteristics" of these systems for the non-geoscientist as well as undergraduate and graduate science students."
– Joe Iovenitti, Consulting Geoscientist, USA

"This textbook will help educate the next generation of geothermal practitioners who will implement the solutions needed to grow geothermal energy so that it becomes a key part of the future renewable energy mix."
– Trenton Cladouhos, AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, Washington, USA


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Contents

INTRODUCTION

THE GLOBAL ENERGY LANDSCAPE

The Historical Role of Fuel

The Impact of Population Growth and Per Capita Energy Use

Fuel Emissions and Environmental Considerations

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

No Fuel, Few Emissions, Reduced Volatility

Geothermal Energy is a Flexible Energy Resource

ELECTRICAL DEMAND AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Generating Electrical Power for the Grid

Generating Electrical Power for Local Use

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

FURTHER INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

SOURCES OF GEOTHERMAL HEAT: THE EARTH AS A HEAT ENGINE

ORIGIN OF EARTH'S HEAT

Heat from Formation of the Core

Heat From Radioactive Decay of Long-Lived Isotopes

TRANSFER OF HEAT IN THE EARTH

Radiation

Conduction

Convection

PLATE TECTONICS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

CLASSIFICATION OF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS BY THEIR GEOLOGICAL CONTEXT

Extensional environments

Compressional environments

Translational environments

Hot spots

Transitional Settings

AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

SYNOPSIS

CASE STUDIES

Extensional Environments -Spreading Centers

Compressional Environments - Subduction Zones

Hot Spots

FIGURE CAPTIONS

FURTHER INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

THERMODYNAMICS AND GEOTHERMAL

THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS - THE EQUIVALENCE OF HEAT AND WORK, AND THE

Conservation of Energy

Internal energy

PV work

Enthalpy

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS - THE INEVITABLE INCREASE OF ENTROPY

Efficiency

Carnot cycle

Heat capacity

Entropy

GIBBS FUNCTION AND GIBBS ENERGY

The Standard State

THERMODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY

CASE STUDY: THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF WATER AND ROCK-WATER INTERACTION

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

FURTHER INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

SUBSURFACE FLUID FLOW - THE HYDROLOGY OF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

A GENERAL MODEL FOR SUBSURFACE FLUID FLOW

MATRIX POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY

Definition of Matrix Permeability

The Kozeny-Carman Equation

Hydraulic Conductivity

FRACTURE POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY

Fracture Permeability

Fracture Transmissivity

THE EFFECT OF DEPTH ON POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY

HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES OF REAL GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

CASE STUDY: LONG VALLEY CALDERA

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

CHEMISTRY OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS

WHY THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS MATTERS

WATER AS A CHEMICAL AGENT

COMPONENTS AND CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

Chemical Potentials, μ, and Gibbs Energy

Activity, a

SATURATION AND THE LAW OF MASS ACTION

Equilibrium Constants

Activity Coefficients, γ

Affinity

Ion Exchange

THE KINETICS OF GEOTHERMAL REACTIONS

GASES IN GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

Gas Partitioning Between Liquid and Vapor

FLUID FLOW AND MIXING IN NATURAL SYSTEMS

SIMULATING REACTIVE TRANSPORT

CASE STUDY: THE SILICA SYSTEM

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

FURTHER INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

EXPLORING FOR GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS: GEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY

CLASSIFICATION OF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS FROM A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Isolated continental volcanic centers (Brophy Type A)

Andesite volcanoes (Brophy Type B)

Calderas (Brophy Type C)

Fault-bounded sedimentary basins (Brophy Type D)

Fault-bounded extensional (horst & graben) complexes (Brophy Type E)

Oceanic basaltic provinces (Brophy Type F)

THE ORIGIN OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS: SIGNIFICANCE FOR RESOURCE EXPLORATION AND ASSESSMENT

SURFACE MANIFESTATIONS

Springs

Surface Deposits Lacking Active Springs

FLUID GEOCHEMISTRY AS AN EXPLORATION TOOL

Fluid Composition and Geothermometry

Isotopes

FLUID INCLUSIONS

ALTERATION AND EXPLORATION

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

EXPLORING FOR GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS: GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

GEOPHYSICS AS AN EXPLORATION TOOL

AEROMAGNETIC SURVEYS

RESISTIVITY AND MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS

GRAVITY SURVEYS

SEISMICITY AND REFLECTION SEISMOLOGY

REMOTE SENSING AS AN EXPLORATION TOOL - A PROMISING NEW TECHNIQUE

Multi-Spectral Studies

CASE STUDY: FALLON, NEVADA

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

ASSESSING A GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE

RESOURCE BASE AND RESERVES

Uncertainty

DETERMINING THE RESERVOIR VOLUME

ESTABLISHING THE RESERVOIR HEAT CONTENT

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HEAT CAPACITY

EFFICIENCY OF HEAT EXTRACTION

A CASE STUDY - ESTABLISHING THE UNITED STATES GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION RESOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

. DRILLING

BACKGROUND

DRILLING FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP (GHP) AND DIRECT-USE APPLICATIONS

Drilling Equipment and Technology

Drilling Fluid and Circulation

Properties of Drilling Fluids

Well Completion

Environmental Issues

Drilling For Geothermal Fluids For Power Generation

Drilling Rigs

Confining Pressure And Rock Strength

Temperature And Drilling Fluid Stability

Casing And Grouting

Packers

Lost Circulation

Blowout Prevention Equipment (BOPE)

Directional Drilling

Coring

SYNOPSIS

CASE STUDY: KAKKONDA, JAPAN

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

GENERATING POWER USING GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

THE HISTORY OF GEOTHERMAL POWER PRODUCTION

FLEXIBILITY AND CONSISTENCY

GENERAL FEATURES OF GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION FACILITIES

DRY STEAM RESOURCES

HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS

Flashing

Steam Quality

Dual-Flash Systems

The End State - Condensers and Cooling Towers

BINARY GENERATION FACILTIES: THE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE

SYNOPSIS

CASE STUDY: THE GEYSERS

Geology

Power Generation History

Emissions

Sustainability and Re-injection

FIGURE CAPTIONS

FURTHER INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

. LOW-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES: GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS

BASIC HEAT PUMP PRINCIPLES

THE THERMODYNAMICS OF HEAT PUMPS

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (EER)

THE NEAR-SURFACE THERMAL RESERVOIR

Solar Insolation

Soil Characteristics

Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacity of Soils

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEMS

Heating and Cooling Loads

Calculating Loop Length

LOCAL VARIABILITY – WHY MEASUREMENTS MATTER

SYNOPSIS

CASE STUDY: WEAVERVILLE AND A US COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF GHP INSTALLATION

SUGGESTED FURTHER READING

REFERENCES

TABLES

DIRECT USE OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

ASSESSING THE MAGNITUDE OF THE DIRECT USE RESERVOIR

THE NATURE OF THERMAL ENERGY TRANSFER

Heat Transfer by Conduction

Heat Transfer by Convection

Heat Transfer by Radiation

Heat Transfer by Evaporation

ESTABLISHING THE FEASIBILITY OF A DIRECT USE APPLICATION

DISTRICT HEATING

Evaluation and Operation

Managing Return Temperature

Piping and Heat Loss

Materials Compatibility and Fluid Chemistry

AQUACULTURE

DRYING

SYNOPSIS

CANBY CASCADED SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY

FIGURE CAPTIONS

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

THE CONCEPT OF ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

THE MAGNITUDE OF ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

Identifying Candidate Zones for Stimulation

Improving Permeability – The Required Rock Volume

The Physical Principles of the Stimulation Process

Managing the Stimulation Process

Monitoring the Stimulation Process

THE HISTORY OF ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

Drilling and Downhole Equipment

Drilling fluids

RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABILITY

SYNOPSIS

CASE STUDY: NEWBERRY ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

FIGURE CAPTIONS

FURTHER INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

USE OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES: ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

ECONOMICS OF GEOTHERMAL POWER

Upfront Capital Costs Associated with Geothermal Power

Capacity Factors

Levelized Costs

THE ECONOMICS OF R&D INVESTMENT IN GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Technology Evolution and S-Curves

Projected Energy Costs

DEVELOPING A GEOTHERMAL PROJECT

Rights to Develop a Resource and Permitting

Initial Resource Assessments

Refining the Resource Assessment Through Exploration Drilling

Production Wells and Feasibility Study

ALTERNATIVE ECONOMIC MODELS

Life cycle analyses

Energy Returned on Energy Invested

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

FURTHER INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES

TABLES

USE OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

EMISSIONS

Carbon Dioxide

Hydrogen Sulfide

Mercury

SOLUTE LOAD AND RESOURCE RECOVERY

SEISMICITY

The Mechanics of Seismic Events

Shear Stress, Normal Stress and Frictional Strength

Pore Water

Seismic Activity Associated with Geothermal Projects

Seismicity Associated with Injection of Cool Water

Rupture area and magnitude

Seismicity Associated with Fluid Extraction

Seismicity Associated with High-Pressure Injection of Fluid to Enhance Reservoir Permeability

GROUND SUBSIDENCE

WATER USE

LAND USE

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

REFERENCES

TABLES

THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FUTURE: POSSIBILITIES AND ISSUES

HISTORY OF GEOTHERMAL EMERGENCE IN THE MARKET PLACE

GEOPRESSURED RESOURCES

Magnitude of the Resource

Why Geopressured Reservoirs Form

Challenges to Development

Fluid Chemistry

Re-injection

SUPERCRITICAL GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS

THERMOELECTRIC GENERATION

FLEXIBLE GENERATION

HYBRID GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

SYNOPSIS

FIGURE CAPTIONS

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES

REFERENCES


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Biography

William Glassley is the executive director of the California Geothermal Energy Collaborative. He has more than 30 years’ experience in R&D in the earth sciences. The focus of his research has been in areas related to geothermal processes. He has held faculty appointments at several academic institutions. He was on the staff of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more than 20 years. He currently is with the University of California. The author of more than 50 research articles in international journals, he has also participated on numerous national and international panels and working groups, and holds a doctorate in geochemistry.

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