Books  Environmental Science  Toxicology 

Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology: The Science of Pollution

Textbook
Includes expanded instructor resources – additional homework problems, instructors' manual, PowerPoint presentations, supplemental images, and a solutions manual
Contains additional expert vignettes, written by guest authors illustrating key themes or highlighting pertinent examples

By: Michael C Newman (Author)

666 pages, 192 colour & 192 b/w illustrations, 20 tables

CRC Press

Hardback | Dec 2014 | Edition: 4 | #215669 | ISBN-13: 9781466582293
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £76.99 $97/€92 approx

About this book

This new edition has been revised throughout, and is now in full color. It provides more international perspective, and adds more case studies from around the world. It also addresses environmental law. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology has been updated to include emerging issues and important themes and events such as the environmental accidents at Fukushima Japan and in the Gulf of Mexico. It details key environmental contaminants, explores their fates in the biosphere, and discusses bioaccumulation and the effects of contaminants at increasing levels of ecological organization.
 

"This is the ideal. Comprehensive and up to date book on how chemical affect organisms and ecosystems. By including 30 vignettes the author has succeeded in bringing independent state of the science perspectives from a variety of experts. [...] It is a 'must have' text on the shelves of students and practitioners of ecotoxicology."
– Don Mackay, Trent University, Ontario, Canada


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Fully revised to reflect new developments, the new edition of this renowned...

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Contents

SECTION ONE. GENERAL

Introduction

Historical Need for Ecotoxicology

Current Need for Ecotoxicology Expertise

Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology: A Synthetic Science

Introduction

Science, Technology and Practice

Scientific Goal

Technological Goal

Practical Goal

Summary

Major Classes of Contaminants

Introduction

Major Classes of Contaminants

Inorganic Contaminants .

Metals and Metalloids

Organometallic Compounds

Inorganic Gases

Anionic Contaminants Including Nutrients

Organic Compounds

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Chlorofluorocarbons

Organochlorine Alkenes

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Polyhalogenated Benzenes, Phenols, and Biphenyls

Polychlorinated Benzenes and Phenols

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (and Terphenyls)

Polybrominated Biphenyls

Polychlorinated Naphthalenes

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans

Pesticides

Organochlorine

Organophosphorus

Carbamate

Pyrethrin and Pyrethroid

Herbicides (Will be expanded with atrazine vignette added)

Oxygen-demanding Compounds

Other Important Compounds

Additional Emerging Organic Contaminants of Concern

Radiations (Will be extensively rewritten for clarity and updated examples)

Expressing Radioactivity

Radionuclides

Ultraviolet Radiation

Infrared Radiation

Genetic Contaminants

Nanomaterials

Summary

Background Chemistry Concepts and Information

SECTION TWO: BIOACCUMULATION

Uptake, Biotransformation, Detoxification, Elimination and Accumulation

Introduction

Uptake

Introduction

Reaction Order

Biotransformation and Detoxification

General

Metals and Metalloids

Organic Compounds

Elimination

Elimination Mechanisms

Modeling Elimination

Accumulation

Summary

Factors Influencing Bioaccumulation

Introduction

General

Bioavailability

Chemical Qualities Influencing Bioavailability

Inorganic Contaminants

Bioavailability of Water

Bioavailability of Solid Phases

Organic Contaminants

Bioavailability of Water

Bioavailability of Solid Phases

Biological Qualities Influencing Bioaccumulation

Temperature-influenced Processes

Allometry

Other Factors

Summary

Bioaccumulation from Food and Trophic Transfer

Introduction

Quantifying Bioaccumulation from Food

Assimilation from Food

Trophic Transfer

Defining Trophic Position

Estimating Trophic Transfer

Inorganic Contaminants

Metals and Metalloids

Radionuclides

Organic Compounds

Summary (Include biomagnification possibilities for nanoparticles)

SECTION THREE. TOXICANT EFFECTS

Molecular Effects and Biomarkers

Introduction

Organic Compound Detoxification

Phase I Transformations

Phase II Transformations

Metallothioneins

Stress Proteins

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response

DNA Modification

Enzyme Dysfunction and Substrate Pool Shifts

Summary

Cells, Tissues and Organs

Introduction

Cytotoxicity and Histopathology

Necrosis and Apotosis

Inflammation

Other General Effects

Gene and Chromosome Damage

Cancer

Gills as an Example

Liver as an Example

Summary

Sublethal Effects to Individuals

General

Selyean Stress

Growth

Development

Developmental Toxicology and Teratology

Fish Cardiac Development as an Example(Will use studies of oil spill effects)

Sexual Characteristics

Developmental Stability (Will be extensively rewritten for clarity)

Reproduction

Physiology

Immunology

Behavior

Detecting Sublethal Effects (Will be updated with reference to more recent publications)

The Conventional Approach

A Fundamental Issue to Resolve

Summary

Acute and Chronic Lethal Effects to Individuals

General

Overview

Acute, Chronic and Life Stage Lethality

Test Types

Up-and-Down Technique

Dose-Response

Basis for Dose-Response Models

Fitting Data to Dose-Response Models

Incipiency

Mixture Models

Survival Time

Basis for Time-Response Models

Fitting Survival Time Data

Incipiency

Mixture Models

Factors Influencing Lethality

Biotic Factors

Abiotic Factors

Summary

Effects on Populations

Overview

Epidemiology

Population Dynamics and Demography

Overview

General Population Response

Demographic Change

Energy Allocation by Individuals in Populations

Metapopulations (Insert and describe metapopulation concept, models and pollution effects on)

Population Genetics

Change in Genetic Qualities

Acquisition of Tolerance

Measuring and Interpreting Genetic Change

Summary

Effects on Communities and Ecosystems

Overview

Definitions and Qualifications

Context

General Assessment of Effects

Interactions Involving Two or a Few Species

Predation and Grazing

Competition

Community Qualities

General (Extensively update with modern metacommunity theory, also trophic cascades)

Structure

Community Indices (Introduce modern spatial context for indices)

Approaches to Measuring Community Structure

Function

Ecosystem Qualities

Summary

Landscape to Global Effects

General

Landscapes and Regions

Continents and Hemispheres (Will try to obtain honey bee decline vignette from EU member)

Biosphere

General

Ozone Depletion and UV

Global Movement of Persistent Organic Pollutants

Global Warming

Ocean Acidification (Will attempt to get coral/ocean acidification vignette)

Summary

SECTION FOUR. RISK FROM POLLUTANTS

Risk Assessment of Contaminants

Overview

Real and Perceived Risk

Logic of Risk Assessment

Expressions of Risk

Risk Assessment

Human Risk Assessment

General

Hazard Identification (Data Collection and Data Evaluation)

Exposure Assessment

Dose-Response Assessment

Risk Characterization

Summary

Ecological Risk Assessment

General

Problem Formulation

Analysis

Exposure Characterization

Ecological Effects Characterization

Risk Characterization

Summary

Radiation Risk Assessment (Will be extensively rewritten to improve clarity)

Types of Radiations and Their Effects

Expressing Radiation Dose and Effect

Models of Radiation Effect

Conclusion

SECTION FIVE. SUMMARY

Conclusions

Overview

Practical Importance of Ecotoxicology

Scientific Importance of Ecotoxicology

STUDY QUESTIONS

GLOSSARY

APPENDICES

REFERENCES


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Biography

Michael C. Newman is a current professor of marine science at the College of William & Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. His research interests include quantitative ecotoxicology, environmental statistics, risk assessment, population effects of contaminants, metal chemistry and effects, and bioaccumulation and biomagnification modeling. In addition to roughly 145 articles, he authored six books and edited another six on these topics. In 2004, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry awarded him its Founder’s Award, "the highest SETAC award, given to a person with an outstanding career who has made a clearly identifiable contribution in the environmental sciences."

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