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Marine Benthic Dinoflagellates: Unveiling Their Worldwide Biodiversity

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Series: Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe Volume: 54

By: Mona Hoppenrath (Editor), Shauna A Murray (Editor), Nicolas Chomérat (Editor), Takeo Horiguchi (Editor)

276 pages, 200+ colour & 150 b/w photos, 250 colour & b/w illustrations, 8 tables

Schweizerbart Science Publishers

Paperback | Aug 2014 | #216558 | ISBN-13: 9783510614028
Availability: In stock
Clearance price: £16.24 £24.99 (Save £8.75) $21/€19 approx

About this book

Language: English

Marine Benthic Dinoflagellates presents the first summary of our knowledge of benthic dinoflagellate species.

Dinoflagellates are important primary producers and symbionts, but, at the same time, also consumers and parasites. Species compositions of benthic habitats are quite distinct from those of planktonic habitats. Less than 10% of the approximately 2000 described extant dinoflagellate species appear to be benthic. They occur in different types of habitats (chapter II) and their morphology, their behavior, and some of their life cycles (chapter VI) seem to be well adapted to the benthic lifestyle. Information on their geographic distribution is still very limited and is compiled herein (chapter V).

The study of harmful benthic dinoflagellates started in the late 1970s when it was suspected that a benthic species, later named Gambierdiscus toxicus, was responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, a type of human poisoning linked to the consumption of certain species of tropical reef fish. As the number of ciguatera fish poisoning incidents increases, and the distribution of toxin producing benthic taxa seems to be expanding, detailed understanding of the species diversity and the ability to accurately identify them is becoming increasingly important (chapter VII). Dinoflagellate classification is currently undergoing changes and far from being settled, as new species and genera are discovered and systematic entities are rearranged. Many benthic dinoflagellate genera have unusual morphologies and appear to be only remotely related to known planktonic taxa, so that molecular phylogenetic analyses frequently show little statistical support for any relationship (chapter IV). Benthic species display unique thecal plate arrangements compared to planktonic species, e.g. Adenoides, Amphidiniella, Cabra, Planodinium, Sabulodinium, Rhinodinium (chapter III). Therefore, no classification on higher rank levels (e.g. family, order) was used throughout Marine Benthic Dinoflagellates. Genera (and species within a genus) are presented in alphabetical order.

Marine Benthic Dinoflagellates presents the first comprehensive identification help for benthic dinoflagellates. At the same time it aims to lend support in order to improve monitoring efforts worldwide. About 190 species in 45 genera are presented in detail, illustrated with more than 200 color images, approximately 150 scanning electron micrographs, and more than 250 drawings.


Contents

Greetings 4
Foreword 5
Contents 7
Acknowledgements 10

I. Introduction 12

II. ‘Materials & Methods’ 16
Habitats 16
Sampling 16
Extraction = separation from the substrate 19
Fixation and Electron Microscopy (EM) 19
Culturing 21
Quantification 21

III. Taxonomy 22
Adenoides 22
Alexandrium 24
Amphidiniella 25
Amphidiniopsis 27
Amphidinium 41
Ankistrodinium 56
Apicoporus 58
Biecheleria 61
Bispinodinium 62
Bysmatrum 64
Cabra 70
Coolia 74
Dinothrix 80
Durinskia 82
Galeidinium 85
Gambierdiscus 86
Glenodinium 95
Gymnodinium 96
Gyrodinium 103
Halostylodinium 107
Herdmania 109
Heterocapsa 111
Katodinium 112
Moestrupia 115
Ostreopsis 116
‘Peridinium’ partim = new genus 126
Pileidinium 128
Plagiodinium 129
Planodinium 130
Polykrikos 132
Prorocentrum 134
Pseudothecadinium 152
Pyramidodinium 154
Rhinodinium 155
Roscoffia 156
Sabulodinium 160
Scrippsiella 163
Sinophysis 165
Spiniferodinium 173
Stylodinium 175
Symbiodinium spp. 177
Testudodinium 178
Thecadinium 180
Togula 188
Vulcanodinium 191

IV. Phylogeny and systematics 193
Phylogeny of the morphological adaptations 194
Amphidinium 195
Amphidiniopsis, Archaeperidinium,
Herdmania – Peridiniales 195
Cabra, Rhinodinium, Roscoffia –Podolampadaceae 196
Coolia, Gambierdiscus,
Ostreopsis – Gonyaulacales 196
Prorocentrum & Adenoides 197
Sinophysis & Sabulodinium 197
‘Dinotoms’ – Dinothrix, Durinskia, Galeidinium,
‘Gymnodinium’ quadrilobatum, ‘Peridinium’ quinquecorne 198
Dinoflagellate taxa with cryptophyte-(klepto)chloroplasts 198
The phytodinialean dinoflagellates (‘Phytodiniales’) 198

V. Biogeography 209

VI. Ecology 212
Attachment 213
Life cycles 213
Tide pools 213
Vertical migration 214
Blooms 214
Spatial distribution 216
Temporal distribution 216
Quantitative Data 217

VII. Toxins of benthic dinoflagellates and benthic harmful algal blooms 218
Introduction 218
Gambierdiscus 219
Ostreopsis 223
Coolia 223
Prorocentrum 226
Amphidinium 227
Alexandrium 227
Vulcanodinium 227
References 234
Taxonomic index 266
Useful web pages 272
Picture credits 273
Authors’ Addresses 274


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