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Vulnerability of Land Systems in Asia

Addresses the complex issues arising from human–environment interactions that cannot be satisfactorily dealt with by core disciplinary methods alone.
Key coverage of a variety of topics from the vulnerability of smallholder agriculture and urban systems to the impact of socioeconomic processes at the sub-regional level.
Coverage of the causal processes that affect land systems vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations are documented.
Focus on integrating vulnerability assessment into policies and decision-making
Includes contributions from leading academics in the field

By: Ademola K Braimoh (Author), He Qing Huang (Author)

Wiley-Blackwell

Hardback | Nov 2014 | #216732 | ISBN-13: 9781118854952
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NHBS Price: £84.99 $107/€101 approx

About this book

Vulnerability of Land Systems in Asia provides a comprehensive yet accessible overview of land systems vulnerability assessment in Asia – fundamental to the understanding of the link between global change, environmental sustainability and human wellbeing. The extent and intensity of human interactions with the environment have increased spectacularly since the Industrial Revolution. Thus, the global change research community and development practitioners increasingly recognize the need to address the adverse consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere and the implications for society. With a focus on Asia, Vulnerability of Land Systems in Asia provides an overview of the vulnerability of land systems and the subsequent multiple stressors in this region.

Vulnerability of Land Systems in Asia offers a discussion surrounding the potential causal processes that affect land systems vulnerability and our capacity to cope with different perturbations. It also identifies factors that help to integrate vulnerability assessment into policy and decision-making.


Contents

Concise table of contents:

Editors’ Introductions xiii
List of Contributors xv
Preface xix
1 Land Systems Vulnerability 1

Part I Hazards and Vulnerability
2 Drought and Extreme Climate Stress on Human-Environment Systems in the Gobi Desert Mongolia 11
3 Vulnerability and Resilience of the Mongolian Pastoral Social-Ecological Systems to Multiple Stressors 27
4 Vulnerability of Pastoral Communities in Central Mongolia to Climate and Land-Use Changes 41
5 Vulnerability Assessment Diagram: A Case Study on Drought in Middle Inner Mongolia, China 63
6 Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Arid Regions: a Case Study of Western Rajasthan, India 77

Part II Land-use Change: Modelling and Impact Assessment
7 Dendrogeomorphological and Sedimentological Analysis of Debris Flow Hazards in the Northern Zailiiskiy Alatau, Tien Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan 91
8 Regional Scenarios and Simulated Land-Cover Changes in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia 117
9 Land-use Change and its Impacts on Agricultural Productivity in China 143
10 Long-Term Land-Cover Change in the Amur River Basin 155
11 Simulating Land-use Change in China from a Global Perspective 165
12 Sustainable Land Use Planning in West Asia Using MicroLEIS Decision Support Systems 179
13 Impacts of Agricultural Land Change on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Kahayan Watershed, Central Kalimantan 195

Part III Institutions
14 Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Urban Structure in Shanghai 215
15 Governing Ecosystem Services from Upland Watersheds in Southeast Asia 237
16 Socio-Economic Impacts of a Wetland Restoration Program in China’s Poyang Lake Region 261
17 China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program: Are the Farmers Paid Enough? 277
18 Community-Based Peatland Management for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Based on Fire-Free Land Preparation 285
19 Structuring Climate Finance for Adaptation Measures in Vulnerable Ecosystems: Lessons from India 297
20 Scientific Uncertainty and Policy Making: How can Communications Contribute to a Better Marriage in the Global Change Arena? 311
21 Planning for Resilience: the Quest for Learning and Adaptation 323
22 Conclusion 337

References 341
Index 343


Detailed table of contents:

Editors’ Introductions xiii

List of Contributors xv

Preface xix

1 Land Systems Vulnerability 1
Ademola K. Braimoh and He Qing Huang

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Overview of the book 3

Acknowledgements 5

References 5

Part I Hazards and Vulnerability

2 Drought and Extreme Climate Stress on Human-Environment Systems in the Gobi Desert Mongolia 11
Troy Sternberg

2.1 Introduction 11

2.1.1 Social ecological systems 12

2.1.2 Mongolian rangelands 13

2.2 Methods 14

2.2.1 Study area 14

2.2.2 Methodology 14

2.3 Results 15

2.3.1 Spatial continuity of droughts 15

2.3.2 Dzud of 1999–2001 16

2.3.3 Dzud and drought: non-drought years 17

2.4 Discussion 19

2.4.1 Resilience 20

2.5 Conclusion 22

Acknowledgements 22

References 22

3 Vulnerability and Resilience of the Mongolian Pastoral Social-Ecological Systems to Multiple Stressors 27
Dennis Ojima, Togtokh Chuluun and Myagmarsuren Altanbagana

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 The current situation 29

3.2.1 Climate conditions 29

3.2.2 Water resources 30

3.2.3 The nomadic system 31

3.2.4 Livestock changes 31

3.3 Analysis of vulnerability of critical ecosystem services 32

3.3.1 Vulnerability index of pastoral systems 32

3.3.2 Integrated zud index 32

3.3.3 Rangeland use index 33

3.3.4 Assessment of rangeland vulnerability to climate and land-use changes 34

3.4 Coping scenarios 34

3.5 Summary and conclusion 37

3.5.1 A win-win model 38

Acknowledgements 38

References 39

4 Vulnerability of Pastoral Communities in Central Mongolia to Climate and Land-Use Changes 41
T. Chuluun, M. Altanbagana, S. Davaanyam, B. Tserenchunt and D. Ojima

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Study sites and methodology 43

4.3 Research results 45

4.4 The results of a social survey related to the ‘dryland development paradigm’ 46

4.5 Pastoral social-ecological scenarios 49

4.6 Policy-related social survey 56

4.7 Discussion 59

4.8 Conclusion 60

Acknowledgements 61

References 61

5 Vulnerability Assessment Diagram: A Case Study on Drought in Middle Inner Mongolia, China 63
Xiaoqian Liu, He Yin and Ademola K. Braimoh

5.1 Introduction 63

5.2 An integrated diagram for vulnerability assessment: the VSD model 64

5.3 Case study using the VSD model 66

5.3.1 The study area 66

5.3.2 Vulnerability profile at the county level 67

5.4 Results and discussion 69

5.4.1 Relative impact of the components on the vulnerability index 69

5.4.2 Model calibration 71

5.5 Conclusion 72

References 74

6 Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Arid Regions: a Case Study of Western Rajasthan, India 77
R.B. Singh and Ajay Kumar

6.1 Introduction 77

6.2 Climate change scenarios: global, national and local levels 78

6.3 Study area 80

6.4 Research methodology 80

6.5 Results and discussions 82

6.5.1 Climate variability 82

6.5.2 Vulnerability assessment 82

6.5.3 Vulnerability 86

6.6 Conclusion 89

References 89

7 Dendrogeomorphological and Sedimentological Analysis of Debris Flow Hazards in the Northern Zailiiskiy Alatau, Tien Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan 91
Vanessa Winchester, David G. Passmore, Stephan Harrison, Alaric Rae, Igor Severskiy and Nina V. Pimankina

7.1 Introduction 91

7.2 Study area 93

7.3 Methods and materials 93

7.3.1 Geomorphology and sedimentology 93

7.3.2 Archive datasets 96

7.3.3 Dendrogeomorphology 96

7.3.4 Cross-dating, reference series identification and skeleton plotting 96

7.3.5 Seedling establishment, growth rates below coring height and earthquakes 99

7.4 Results 100

7.4.1 Growth rate and establishment periods 100

7.4.2 Kumbelsu Creek 102

7.4.3 Sedimentology, geomorphology and dating of fluvial terraces, fans and debris flows in the Ozernaya valley 102

7.4.4 Debris flow events in the Ozernaya Valley and archival records 104

7.5 Discussion 107

7.6 Conclusions 110

Acknowledgements 111

References 111

Part II Land-use Change: Modelling and Impact Assessment

8 Regional Scenarios and Simulated Land-Cover Changes in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia 117
Jefferson Fox, John B. Vogler, Omer L. Sen, Alan L. Ziegler and Thomas W. Giambelluca

8.1 Introduction 117

8.2 Methods 119

8.2.1 Baseline land-cover classification 120

8.2.2 CLUE-s model 121

8.2.3 Land-cover allocation 129

8.3 Results 129

8.4 Discussion and conclusions 135

Acknowledgements 138

References 138

9 Land-use Change and its Impacts on Agricultural Productivity in China 143
Huimin Yan, He Qing Huang, Xiangzheng Deng and Jiyuan Liu

9.1 Introduction 143

9.2 Land-use data 144

9.3 Methods for estimating changes in agricultural productivity 145

9.3.1 NPP estimation with the GLO-PEM model 145

9.3.2 Agro-ecological zones (AEZ) model 146

9.3.3 Calculating agricultural productivity change caused by land use change 146

9.4 Agricultural productivity change caused by cropland transformation 147

9.4.1 Cropland transformation 147

9.4.2 Contributions of cropland area change to agricultural productivity 148

9.4.3 Agricultural productivity change caused by major land use change types 150

9.4.4 Changes in potential agricultural productivity due to cropland conversions 151

9.5 Summary 152

Acknowledgements 152

References 152

10 Long-Term Land-Cover Change in the Amur River Basin 155
Shigeko Haruyama, Yoshitaka Masuda and Akihiko Kondoh

10.1 Introduction 155

10.2 Outline of study area 156

10.3 The dataset 157

10.3.1 NOAA/AVHRR PAL dataset 157

10.3.2 Statistical materials used in the agricultural and field investigation 157

10.4 Method of study 158

10.4.1 Analysis of secular variation from 1982 to 2000 158

10.5 Results and consideration 159

10.5.1 Analysis of secular variation in land cover from 1982 to 2000 159

10.5.2 Verification of validity of PAL data analysis 162

10.6 Summary 163

Acknowledgements 163

References 163

11 Simulating Land-use Change in China from a Global Perspective 165
Xuefeng Cui, Mark Rounsevell, Yuan Jiang, Muyi Kang, Paul Palmer, Wen Chen and Terence Dawson

11.1 Introduction 165

11.2 Land use in China 166

11.3 Global perspectives 168

11.4 Model and data 170

11.5 Model results 171

11.5.1 Historical simulation 171

11.5.2 Future ‘business as usual’ scenario 173

11.6 Discussion and conclusions 176

Acknowledgements 176

References 176

12 Sustainable Land Use Planning in West Asia Using MicroLEIS Decision Support Systems 179
Farzin Shahbazi, Maria Anaya-Romero, Ademola K. Braimoh and Diego De la Rosa

12.1 Introduction 179

12.2 Materials and methods 181

12.2.1 Study area 181

12.2.2 Climate 181

12.2.3 Benchmark soils 181

12.2.4 The MicroLEIS technology 183

12.3 Modelling with MicroLEIS in the Ahar region 185

12.3.1 Arable land identification 185

12.3.2 Semi-natural habitats 186

12.3.3 Crop diversification 187

12.3.4 Soil productivity capability evaluation 190

12.3.5 Soil fertility capability evaluation 191

12.4 Conclusions 191

Acknowledgements 193

References 193

13 Impacts of Agricultural Land Change on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Kahayan Watershed, Central Kalimantan 195
J.S. Rahajoe, L. Alhamd, E.B. Walujo, H.S. Limin, M.S. Suneetha, A.K. Braimoh and T. Kohyama

13.1 Introduction 195

13.2 Study locations and methods 197

13.2.1 Study sites: Bawan village, Central Kalimantan 197

13.2.2 Participatory rural appraisal 200

13.3 Results and discussion 200

13.3.1 Current status of the Kahayan watershed 200

13.3.2 Biodiversity and forest products in Bawan village 201

13.3.3 Ecosystem services in Bawan village 206

13.3.4 Rubber plantations in Bawan village 206

13.3.5 Changes in farming systems and agricultural produce 210

13.4 Conclusion 212

Acknowledgements 212

References 212

14 Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Urban Structure in Shanghai 215
Wenze Yue, Peilei Fan and Jiaguo Qi

14.1 Introduction 215

14.2 Theoretical framework, study area, data, and methodology 216

14.2.1 Theoretical framework 216

14.2.2 Study area 218

14.2.3 Data and methodology 219

14.3 Findings 219

14.3.1 Urban evolution of Shanghai 219

14.3.2 Urban transformation at the district level 222

14.4 Discussion 226

14.4.1 Economic restructuring and globalization 227

14.4.2 Changing population profile and impact on the housing market 228

14.4.3 The role of the multi-scaled state 229

14.5 Conclusion 230

Acknowledgements 232

References 232

Part III Institutions

15 Governing Ecosystem Services from Upland Watersheds in Southeast Asia 237
Louis Lebel and Rajesh Daniel

15.1 Introduction 237

15.2 Plans 238

15.2.1 Protected areas 238

15.2.2 Forest and watershed classifications 239

15.2.3 Participatory land-use planning 241

15.3 Rules 242

15.3.1 Property rights and land tenure 242

15.3.2 Community-based management 243

15.3.3 Logging concessions 244

15.3.4 Logging bans 245

15.4 Incentives 246

15.4.1 Payments for ecosystem services 246

15.4.2 Certification 248

15.5 Information 249

15.6 Discussion 250

15.7 Conclusions 252

Acknowledgements 253

References 253

16 Socio-Economic Impacts of a Wetland Restoration Program in China’s Poyang Lake Region 261
Fen Li, Lin Zhen, He Qing Huang, Yunjie Wei, Li Yang and Sandra Uthes

16.1 Introduction 261

16.2 Study area 263

16.2.1 Background 263

16.3 Methods 264

16.3.1 Analysis of land use and economic data 264

16.3.2 Stakeholder analysis 264

16.3.3 Household surveys 265

16.3.4 Farmers’ willingness to accept eco-compensation (WTA) 265

16.3.5 Estimation of the eco-compensation burden of the local governments 266

16.4 Results 267

16.4.1 Land use changes 267

16.4.2 Changes in the economic structure 268

16.4.3 Stakeholder groups 269

16.4.4 Farmers’ willingness to accept eco-compensation 270

16.4.5 Eco-compensation burden of the local governments 272

16.5 Discussion 272

16.6 Conclusions 274

Acknowledgements 275

References 275

17 China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program: Are the Farmers Paid Enough? 277
Shubhechchha Thapa, Xing Lu and Ademola K. Braimoh

17.1 Introduction 277

17.2 The study area 278

17.3 Data sources and analysis 279

17.4 Results and discussion 280

17.4.1 Quantitative data on land-cover change 280

17.4.2 Carbon dynamics in the landscape 281

17.4.3 Landscape value 281

17.5 Conclusion 282

References 283

18 Community-Based Peatland Management for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Based on Fire-Free Land Preparation 285
Bambang Hero Saharjo

18.1 Introduction 285

18.2 Greenhouse gas emissions 286

18.2.1 Southeast Asian greenhouse gases emissions 286

18.2.2 Indonesian greenhouse gas emissions 287

18.3 The current Indonesian forest fire situation 289

18.4 Greenhouse gas emissions reduction 290

18.4.1 Smoke management 290

18.4.2 Greenhouse gas emission reduction through land preparation without fire: an example from the community 291

18.4.3 Peatland management and restoration of organic soils 295

18.5 Conclusion 295

Acknowledgements 295

References 296

19 Structuring Climate Finance for Adaptation Measures in Vulnerable Ecosystems: Lessons from India 297
A. Damodaran

19.1 Introduction 297

19.2 Approach 298

19.3 Methodology of field studies 298

19.4 Co-benefits approach to adaptation financing and equity 299

19.5 Adaptation gradients 301

19.6 Adaptation possibility trends for agro and coastal ecosystems: preliminary assessment 302

19.7 Financing systems for adaptation to climate change 303

19.8 Evidence from the study area 306

19.9 Lessons and implications: summing up 307

References 308

20 Scientific Uncertainty and Policy Making: How can Communications Contribute to a Better Marriage in the Global Change Arena? 311
Gabriela Litre

20.1 A case study: the establishment of marine reserves off the Californian coast 312

20.2 A matter of trust 313

20.3 Communicating scientific uncertainty 315

20.3.1 Quantifying uncertainties 315

20.3.2 Communicating the quantified uncertainties 316

20.4 The need for a new language 316

20.5 Changing worlds 317

20.6 A learning experience 318

Acknowledgements 319

References 319

21 Planning for Resilience: the Quest for Learning and Adaptation 323
Fernando Teigao dos Santos

21.1 Introductory insights 323

21.2 The global ‘carousel’ context 324

21.3 Looking at the resilience framework 325

21.4 Planning for resilience 328

21.5 ‘Command-and-control’ vs ‘learning-and-adaptation’ 329

21.6 The strategic SPARK example 331

21.7 Final considerations 332

Acknowledgements 333

References 333

22 Conclusion 337
He Qing Huang and Ademola K. Braimoh

22.1 Improving understanding in areas lacking data 337

22.2 Highlighting the effects of scale 339

22.3 Validating the conceptual framework for vulnerability assessment 339

22.4 Land system vulnerability in other parts of the world 339

22.5 Roads ahead 340

22.6 Final remarks 341

References 341

Index 343


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